Category Archives: Eastern and Central Pacific

TCs between Mexico and Hawaii

Tropical Storm Eugene Forms South of Baja California

A distinct center of circulation consolidated within a broader area of low pressure south of Baja California on Friday and the National Hurricane Center classified the system as Tropical Storm Eugene.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Friday the center of Tropical Storm Eugene was located at latitude 11.9°N and longitude 111.2°W which put it about 765 miles (1230 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California.  Eugene was moving toward the northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

The circulation of Tropical Storm Eugene is large and there are numerous bands of showers and thunderstorms rotating around the center of circulation.  A primary rainband is wrapping around the southern and eastern sides of the center and the strongest winds are occurring northeast of the center of circulation.  The circulation is circular and symmetrical.  Thunderstorms around the core of Eugene are beginning to generate upper level divergence which is pumping out mass in all directions.

Tropical Storm Eugene will move through an environment that is favorable for intensification.  Eugene will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  The upper level winds over Tropical Storm Eugene are relatively weak and there is not a lot of vertical wind shear.  The circulation of Tropical Storm Eugene will continue to consolidate and it is likely to intensify during the weekend.  It is likely to become a hurricane and it could intensify rapidly if an eye forms.

Tropical Storm Eugene is moving near the western end of a subtropical ridge which is steering it toward the northwest.  A generally northwesterly motion is expected to continue during the next few days.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Eugene would move parallel to the west coast of Baja California and the center would remain west of the coast.

Hurricane Dora Weakens South of Baja California

Hurricane Dora weakened as it moved over cooler water south of Baja California on Tuesday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Dora was located at latitude 19.6°N and longitude 111.4°W which put it about 245 miles (400 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California. Dora as moving toward the west-northwest at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 995 mb.

Tropical Storm Dora is moving over water where the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is near 24°C.  The circulation of Tropical Storm Dora is still very well organized but it is unable to extract sufficient energy from the upper ocean to maintain its intensity.  As a result, the showers and thunderstorms are not rising as far into the atmosphere and the circulation is spinning down.  There is little vertical wind shear and so the circulation is still symmetrical, but it is not as vigorous.  The lack of wind shear will cause the weakening to occur more slowly than it would have if the upper level winds were stronger.

A subtropical ridge is steering Tropical Storm Dora toward the west-northwest and that general motion is expected to continue for anther day or two.  On its anticipated track, Tropical Storm Dora will move farther away from Baja California.  The forecast track would keep Dora over cooler SSTs and it should continue to weaken.

Dora Rapidly Intensifies Into First Eastern Pacific Hurricane of 2017

Tropical Storm Dora intensified rapidly into a hurricane during the overnight hours.  Dora is the first hurricane to develop over the Eastern North Pacific during 2017.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Monday the center of Hurricane Dora was located at latitude 17.3°N and longitude 106.3°W which put it about 220 miles (350 km) south of Cabo Corrientes, Mexico.  Dora was moving toward the west-northwest at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h. (140 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 985 mb.

The circulation of Hurricane Dora is very well organized.  A circular eye exists at the center of circulation.  A ring of strong thunderstorms surrounds the eye.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms are revolving around the core of the circulation.  Thunderstorms in Dora are generating well developed upper level divergence which is pumping large quantities of mass out in all directions.

Dora is a small hurricane.  Wind to hurricane force extend out about 25 miles (40 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extend out about 80 miles (130 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) is 12.7.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) is 7.3.  The Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) is 20.0.

Hurricane Dora will move through an environment favorable for intensification for another 12 to 18 hours.  It is currently over water where the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is near 28°C.  Dora will move over SSTs that will gradually be cooler, but they should be warm enough to support further intensification for another 12 to 18 hours.  Hurricane Dora is moving through an area where upper level winds are weak and there is almost no vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Dora is likely to strengthen further during the next few hours.  Dora will move over much cooler SSTs when it passes south of Baja California and it will begin to weaken on Tuesday.

A subtropical ridge to the north of Dora is steering the hurricane toward the west-northwest and that general motion is expected to continue for another 24 to 48 hours.  On its anticipated track the center of Hurricane Dora will pass south of Baja California.

TD 04E Strengthens Rapidly Into Tropical Storm Dora

Tropical Depression Four-E strengthened rapidly into Tropical Storm Dora on Sunday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Dora was located at latitude 16.4°N and longitude 104.3°W which put ti about 290 miles (470 km) south-southeast of Cabo Corrientes, Mexico.  Dora was moving toward the west-northwest at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 996 mb.

The circulation of Tropical Storm Dora organized quickly on Sunday.  A primary rainband wrapped tightly around the center of circulation.  An eyelike feature appeared to be forming on microwave and infrared satellite images.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms developed outside the core of Tropical Storm Dora.  Thunderstorms around the core generated upper level divergence which pumped out mass in all directions.

Tropical Storm Dora will be moving through an environment very favorable for intensification on Monday.  It will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is near 29°C.  An upper level ridge over Mexico is producing easterly winds that are blowing toward the top of the circulation, but there is little vertical wind shear.  A combination of warm water and little shear will allow Dora to intensify into a hurricane during the next 24 hours.  The rate of intensification could increase once the formation of the eye is complete.  Dora will move over cooler SSTs on Tuesday.  The cooler SSTs will initially halt the intensification.  When Dora is unable to extract sufficient energy from the upper ocean it will start to weaken.

A subtropical ridge northeast of Dora is steering the tropical storm toward the west-northwest and a general west-northwesterly motion is expected to continue for another day or two.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Storm Dora will remain southwest of Mexico.  Dora will pass south of Baja California on Tuesday.

Tropical Depression Four-E Forms South of Acapulco

Tropical Depression Four-E formed south of Acapulco, Mexico on Saturday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Depression Four-E was located at latitude 14.3°N and longitude 100.0°W which put it about 180 miles (290 km) south of Acapulco.  It was moving toward the west-northwest at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

A distinct surface center of circulation developed within a larger area of thunderstorms south of Mexico on Saturday.  Showers and thunderstorms began to consolidate near the center.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms formed outside the core of the circulation.  The thunderstorms began to produce upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the core of the depression.

Tropical Depression Four-E will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  It will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  An upper low over the western Gulf of Mexico is enhancing the upper level divergence to the northeast of the tropical depression.  An upper level ridge over Mexico is producing easterly winds which are blowing toward the top of the circulation, but the vertical wind shear is minimal.  Tropical Depression Four-E could intensify in a tropical storm on Sunday.  It has a chance to become a hurricane early next week before it reaches cooler water south of Baja California.

A subtropical ridge over Mexico is steering Tropical Depression Four-E toward the west-northwest and that general motion is expected to continue for another two or three days.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Depression Four-E is expected to remain south of the coast of Mexico.  Rainbands in the northern portion of the circulation could produce locally heavy rain over parts of southern Mexico.  The greatest risk would be for flash floods in those areas.

TD 03E Strengthens Into Tropical Storm Calvin

Tropical Depression 03E strengthened into Tropical Storm Calvin on Monday as it lingered south of Mexico.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Monday the center of Tropical Storm Calvin was located at latitude 15.5°N and longitude 95.5°W which put it about 70 miles (110 km) east-southeast of Puerto Angel, Mexico.  Calvin was moving toward the west-northwest at 2 m.p.h. (3 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1005 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning remains in effect for the portion of the coast from Boca De Pijijiapan to Punta Maldonado.

A band of thunderstorms wrapped tightly around the southern side of the center of circulation of former Tropical Depression 03E and the National Hurricane Center upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Calvin in its 5:00 p.m. EDT advisory on Monday.  Calvin is a small tropical storm and winds to tropical storm force only extend out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms are occurring in the outer portions of the circulation which are over the Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storm Calvin is in an environment that is marginally favorable for intensification.  It is over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  However, Calvin is also very near the coast of Mexico and it could start to pull drier air into the western part of the circulation at any time.  Calvin is under the eastern end of an upper level ridge which is producing northerly winds which are blowing toward the top of the tropical storm.  The northerly winds are producing moderate vertical wind shear and the shear may be contributing to the location of the main band thunderstorms south of the center of circulation.

The future intensity of Tropical Storm Calvin will depend on whether or not it remains over the Pacific Ocean.  If Calvin stays over the open water, then further intensification is possible.  If Calvin moves closer to the coast, then further intensification is much less likely.  If Calvin moves inland, it will dissipate quickly.

Tropical Storm Calvin is in an area where the steering currents are weak and it moved very slowly toward the west-northwest during the past 18 hours.  A subtropical ridge north of Calvin is forecast to begin to steer the tropical storm more quickly toward the west-northwest.  If that happens, Calvin could make landfall on the coast of Mexico near Puerto Angel in 12 to 24 hours.  Locally heavy rainfall remain the biggest risks with Tropical Storm Calvin.

Formation of Tropical Depression 03E Prompts Mexico to Issue Warning for Coast

Tropical Depression 03E formed out of the cluster of thunderstorms formerly known as Invest 92E and the government of Mexico issued a Tropical Storm Warning for a portion of the south coast.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Depression 03E was located at latitude 14.5°N and longitude 95.0°W which put it about 105 miles (170 km) southeast of Puerto Angel, Mexico.  The depression was moving toward the northwest at 5 m.p.h. (7 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for the portion of the coast from Boca De Pijijiapan to Punta Maldonado, Mexico.

A distinct center of circulation developed within an area of thunderstorms that had been lingering over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean south of Mexico.  More thunderstorms formed closer to the center of circulation and the National  Hurricane Center determined that there was sufficient organization to designate the system as Tropical Depression 03E.  The stronger thunderstorms were occurring in a partial band close to the center of circulation.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms were forming in bands in other parts of the circulation.  The thunderstorms near the center have not yet begun to generate significant upper level divergence.

Tropical Depression 03E will be moving through an environment that is marginally favorable for intensification.  The depression will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It is moving under the western end of an upper level ridge.  The ridge is generating southeasterly winds which are blowing toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds are generating moderate vertical wind shear which is restricting upper level divergence to the east of the circulation.  The shear is inhibiting intensification.  Tropical Depression 03E will probably be able to extract enough energy to intensify into a tropical storm.

Tropical Depression 03E is moving around the western end of a subtropical ridge which is steering it toward the northwest.  A generally northwesterly motion is forecast for the next 24 to 48 hours.  On its anticipated track Tropical Depression 03E could approach the southern coast of Mexico in 24 to 36 hours.  It could be a tropical storm by that time.  Tropical Depression 03E is likely to bring gusty winds, locally heavy rain and the potential for flash floods to parts of southern Mexico.

Tropical Storm Beatriz Brings Heavy Rain to Southern Mexico

Tropical Depression Two-E intensified into Tropical Storm Beatriz on Thursday and Beatriz brought heavy rain to parts of southern Mexico.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Beatriz was located at latitude 15.5°N and longitude 96.8°W which put it about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Puerto Angel, Mexico.  Beatriz was moving toward the north-northeast at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1004 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Salina Cruz to Puerto Escondido.

Tropical Depression Two-E intensified into Tropical Storm Beatriz on Thursday even though its structure evolved into a more asymmetrical system.  Tropical Storm Beatriz appeared to consist of a larger low pressure system which was centered just off the coast of Mexico.  The weather radar from Puerto Angel confirmed that the center of circulation was still offshore.  There were several smaller (mesoscale) counterclockwise rotating circulations that were revolving around the center of the larger low.  At least one of the smaller circulations was already over southern Mexico.  Many of the thunderstorms were occurring in a broad band that wrapped around the eastern and northern portions of the larger low pressure system.  The strongest winds were occurring within this primary rainband.  There were far fewer thunderstorms in the western half of the circulation.  It seemed that after air descended from mountains in Mexico then the air was drawn into the western side of Tropical Storm Beatriz.  The warmer drier air was inhibiting the formation of thunderstorms in the western half of Beatriz.

Although Tropical Storm Beatriz is over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C, other environmental factors are unfavorable for intensification.  The proximity to land and the apparent ingestion of drier air are both negative factors.  A narrow upper level ridge oriented from the south-southwest to the north-northeast and a upper level trough to the west of Beatriz are producing brisk southerly winds that are blowing toward the top of the circulation.  Those upper level winds are causing moderate vertical wind shear.  Therefore, Tropical Storm Beatriz is unlike to intensify further during the next several days.

The future track of Tropical Storm Beatriz is uncertain.  If the circulation of Beatriz remains intact then the upper level trough and upper level ridge are likely to steer it toward the north-northeast.  Tropical Storm Beatriz would dissipate over the mountains of Mexico if that scenario occurs.  If the upper level winds are strong enough, the vertical shear could detach the upper portion of the circulation from the low level circulation.  That scenario sometimes occurs when slow moving storms approach the south coast of Mexico.  If that happens, the upper half of the circulation could be transported across Mexico and move over the southern Gulf of Mexico.  Some models are suggesting that a new surface low could form over the southern Gulf in several days, but the wind shear would have to decrease in order for that to occur.  The lower level circulation could be left behind near the coast of Mexico where it would drift slowly near the coast.

Tropical Storm Beatriz is bringing heavy rains to parts of southern Mexico and the heavy rain will continue to fall on Friday.  Locally heavy rain in the more mountainous portions of Oaxaca could create the potential for dangerous flash floods.

Tropical Depression 2E Prompts Tropical Storm Watch By Mexico

The National Hurricane Center designated former Invest 91E as Tropical Depression 2E and the government of Mexico issued a Tropical Storm Watch for the portion of the coast from Salina Cruz to Puerto Escondido.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression 2E was located at latitude 13.9°N and longitude 97.8°W which put it about 250 miles (400 km) southeast of Acapulco, Mexico.  The depression was moving toward the northeast at 3 m.p.h. (5 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.

Bands of showers and thunderstorms developed closer to the center of a broad area of low pressure previously designated as Invest 91E on Wednesday morning.  The improved organization prompted the National Hurricane Center to classify the system as Tropical Depression 2E.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around a tighter center of circulation.  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms were strengthening in the outer portions of the circulation.  Thunderstorms in the inner part of the circulation were beginning to generate upper level divergence which was pumping out mass to the north and west of the depression.

Tropical Depression 2E will be moving through an environment that will be favorable for intensification.  It will be moving over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is 30°C to 31°C.  An upper level ridge centered east of the depression will generate southerly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds will generate some vertical wind shear, but the shear will not be strong enough to prevent strengthening.  The circulation around the upper level ridge could actually enhance upper level divergence to the north of the depression.  Tropical Depression 2E is likely to intensify into a tropical storm during the next several days.

A subtropical high east of the depression is steering the system slowly toward the northeast.  A slow northerly motion is forecast for the next day or two.  Forecast guidance from the numerical models diverges when the system approaches Mexico.  Some models continue to move the depression inland over Mexico.  Other models suggest that the steering winds will weaken and that the system will stall before it reaches the coast.  The official forecast from the National Hurricane Center has the depression stalling very near the coast and then turning westward during the weekend.

Bands of rain in the outer part of the circulation are already moving over the coast.  Tropical Depression 2E will produce locally heavy rainfall over parts of southern Mexico and there is the potential for dangerous flash floods.

Invest 91E Slowly Organizing South of Mexico

A broad area of low pressure designated as Invest 91E slowly organized south of Mexico on Tuesday.  At 8:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Invest 91E was located at latitude 13.7°N and longitude 97.9°W which put it about 220 miles (350 km) south-southeast of Acapulco, Mexico.  Invest 91E was moving toward the north-northeast at 6 m.p.h. (10 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.

Invest 91E consisted of a broad area of low pressure located south of Mexico.  The Invest did not have a well organized center of circulation.  Instead there was a broad area of counterclockwise rotation.  Many of the thunderstorms were in bands in the outer periphery of the circulation.  A few thunderstorms were beginning to form closer to the center and there were signs that some bands of showers were beginning to organize nearer to the core of the system.

Invest 91E will be moving through an area that will be favorable for development of a tropical cyclone.  It will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  Invest 91E will be moving underneath the western portion of an upper level ridge.  The ridge will produce southerly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation.  The southerly winds will cause some vertical wind shear.  However, the effects of the shear could be offset by upper level divergence created by the upper level ridge.  Invest 91E has a good chance to develop into a tropical depression and the National Hurricane Center is indicating that there is a 70% probability of a depression forming during the next 48 hours.

A subtropical ridge east of Invest 91E is steering the system slowly toward the north-northeast.  A general northerly motion is expected to continue for another 24 to 48 hours.  On its anticipated track Invest 91E will approach the southern coast of Mexico.  It could bring locally heavy rain when the outer bands on the northern side of the circulation move over land.