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Hanna Strengthens to a Hurricane Near South Texas

Former Tropical Storm Hanna strengthened into a hurricane near the coast of South Texas on Saturday morning.  At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Hurricane Hanna was located at latitude 27.1°N and longitude 96.0°W which put it about 100 miles (160 km) east-southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas.  Hanna was moving toward the west at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (150 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 982 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Port Mansfield to Mesquite Bay, Texas.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Barra de Mezquital, Mexico to Port Mansfield and from Mesquite Bay to High Island, Texas.

A NOAA aircraft detected winds to hurricane force in former Tropical Storm Hanna on Saturday morning and the National Hurricane Center upgraded Hanna to a hurricane.  The circulation around Hurricane Hanna was well organized.  A circular eye with a diameter of 25 miles (40 km) was at the center of circulation.  The eye was surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Hanna.  Storms near the core were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the hurricane.  Winds to hurricane force extended out 25 miles (40 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 90 miles (150 km) from the center.

Hurricane Hanna will move through an environment favorable for strengthening during the next few hours.  Hanna will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Hanna will continue to intensify until it makes landfall on the coast of South Texas.

Hurricane Hanna will move south of a high pressure system that stretches across the southern U.S.  The high will steer Hanna a little to the south of due west.  On its anticipated track the center of Hurricane Hanna will make landfall on Padre Island later today.  The northern part of the eyewall will pass near Corpus Christi and that city could experience winds to hurricane force.  The southern part of the eyewall will pass near Port Mansfield which could also experience hurricane force winds.  The core of Hanna will pass north of Brownsville, but Brownsville, Harlingen and Mcallen could all experience winds to tropical storm force.

Easterly winds will blow water toward the coast of South Texas and they will cause a significant storm surge.  The storm surge could reach 6 to 9 feet (2 to 3 meters) near and just to the north of where the center makes landfall.  Hurricane Hanna will also drop heavy rain over South Texas.  Isolated locations could receive over a foot (0.3 meters) of rain and flash flooding is likely.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Gonazalo was quickly nearing Trinidad.  At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday  the center of Tropical Storm Gonzalo was located at latitude 10.3°N and longitude 59.8°W which put it about 100 miles (160 km) east of Trinidad.  Gonzalo was moving toward the west at 18 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1009 mb.

Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect  for Tobago and Grenada.

Tropical Storm Hanna Prompts Hurricane Warning for Texas

A strengthening Tropical Storm Hanna prompted the issuance of a Hurricane Warning for a portion of the coast of Texas on Friday afternoon.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Friday the center of Tropical Storm Hanna was located at latitude 27.3°N and longitude 94.3°W which put it about 195 miles (310 km) east of Corpus Christi, Texas.  Hanna was moving toward the west at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 999 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the Texas coast from Baffin Bay to Mesquite Bay.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from the Mouth of the Rio Grande River to Baffin Bay and from Mesquite Bay to San Luis Pass, Texas.

Tropical Storm Hanna exhibited much more organization on Friday afternoon.  A primary rainband wrapped around the southern and eastern sides of the center of Hanna.  The northern end of the rainband appeared to be wrapping around the rest of the center of circulation and an eye seemed to be forming.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the center of Tropical Storm Hanna.  Storms near the center were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical storm.  The removal of mass was allowing the surface pressure to decrease.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 60 miles (95 km) from the center for circulation.

Tropical Storm Hanna will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 18 hours.  Hanna will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Hanna will continue to intensify.  If an eye and eyewall form completely, then Hanna could strengthen rapidly during the 6 to 12 hours prior to landfall.  Tropical Storm Hanna is very likely to intensify into a hurricane.

Tropical Storm Hanna will move south of a high pressure system that stretches across the southern U.S.  The high will steer Hanna toward the west during the next 24 hours.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Hanna will reach the coast of Texas near Corpus Christi during the middle of the day on Saturday.

Tropical Storm Hanna is very likely to be a hurricane when it makes landfall.  It will bring strong winds to the portion of the coast near where the eye makes landfall.  Strong winds blowing water toward the coast could create a storm surge of 6 to 8 feet (2 to 3 meters) near and to the north of where the eye makes landfall.

Elsewhere, a trade wind surge hit Tropical Storm Gonzalo from the northeast.  The surge caused increased low level wind shear and it brought drier air.  The increased shear and drier air caused Gonzalo to weaken.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Friday the center of Tropical Storm Gonzalo was located at latitude 10.0°N and 55.6°W which put it about 390 miles (625 km) east of the southern Windward Islands.  Gonzalo was moving toward the west at 18 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km.h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1008 mb.

Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for Barbados, Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Tropical Depression Eight Strengthens to Tropical Storm Hanna

Former Tropical Depression Eight strengthened to Tropical Storm Hanna on Thursday night and a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for a large portion of the coast of Texas.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Hanna was located at latitude 26.2°N and longitude 91.4°W which put it about 385 miles (620 km) east-southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas.  Hanna was moving toward the west-northwest at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1002 mb.

A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from the Mouth of the Rio Grande River to San Luis Pass, Texas.  A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from San Luis Pass to High Island, Texas.

A NOAA aircraft detected winds to tropical storm force in former Tropical Depression Eight on Thursday night and the National Hurricane Center upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Hanna.  The surface pressure was decreasing and Tropical Storm Hanna was exhibiting greater organization.  A band of thunderstorms was wrapping around the southern and eastern sides of the center of circulation.  Thunderstorms were forming in other bands the were revolving around the center of circulation.  Storms near the center began to generate upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical storm.  The removal of mass allowed the surface pressure to decrease.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 35 miles (55 km) from the center in the eastern quadrant of Tropical Storm Hanna.  Winds in the other parts of Hanna were blowing at less than tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Hanna will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 36 hours.  Hanna will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Hanna will continue to intensify and there is a chance it could strengthen into a hurricane.

Tropical Storm Hanna will move south of a high pressure system that extends from the Atlantic Ocean across the southern U.S.  The high will steer Hanna slowly toward the west.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Hanna will approach the coast of Texas near Corpus Christi on Saturday.  Hanna could be a strong tropical storm or a hurricane when it reaches the coast.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Gonzalo continued to churn toward the Windward Islands.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Gonzalo was located at latitude 9.9°N and longitude 50.6°W which put it about 730 miles (1170 km) east of the southern Windward Islands.  Gonzalo was moving toward the west at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.

A Hurricane Watch was in effect for Barbados and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.  A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for Tobago and Grenada.

Tropical Depression Eight Forms Over Gulf of Mexico

Tropical Depression Eight formed over the Gulf of Mexico on Wednesday night and a Tropical Storm Watch was issued for the coast of Texas.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Eight was located at latitude 25.9°N and longitude 88.2°W which put it about 530 miles (855 km) east-southeast of Port Oconnor, Texas.  The depression was moving toward the west-northwest at 6 m.p.h. (10 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1009 mb.

A Tropical Storm Watch was issued for the portion of the coast of Texas from Port Mansfield to High Island.

More thunderstorms formed near the center of a low pressure system over the Gulf of Mexico on Wednesday night and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Depression Eight.  The thunderstorms were forming in bands in the northern half of the circulation.  Bands in the southern half of the depression consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.

Tropical Depression Eight will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 36 hours.  The depression will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  An upper level low over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico will produce southerly winds which will blow toward the top of the depression.  Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear, but the shear will not be enough to prevent intensification.  Tropical Depression Eight is likely to strengthen into a tropical storm during the next 36 hours.

Tropical Depression Eight will move south of a subtropical high pressure system that extends from the western Atlantic Ocean across the southern U.S.  The high will steer the depression toward the west-northwest.  On its anticipated track Tropical Depression Eight could approach the coast of Texas on Friday night.  It is likely to be a tropical storm when it approaches the coast.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Gonzalo strengthened as it moved toward the Windward Islands and a Hurricane Watch was issued for Barbados.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Gonzalo was located at latitude 9.9°N and longitude 45.9°W which put it about 1045 miles (1685 km) east of the southern Windward Islands.  Gonzalo was moving toward the west at 12 m.p.h. (19 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb.

TD 7 Strengthens Into Tropical Storm Gonzalo

Former Tropical Depression Seven strengthened into Tropical Storm Gonzalo on Wednesday morning.  At 11:00 a.m.  EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Gonzalo was located at latitude 9.9°N and longitude 43.6°W which put it about 1205 miles (1935 km) east of the southern Windward Islands.  Gonzalo was moving toward the west at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.

The circulation around former Tropical Depression Seven exhibited much better organization on Wednesday morning and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Storm Gonzalo.  A band of thunderstorms curved around the southern and eastern sides of the center of circulation.  The inner end of the band appeared to be wrapping farther around the center and visible satellite images suggested that an eye could be forming.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the center of Gonzalo.  Storms near the center were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical storm.  The circulation around Tropical Storm Gonzalo was small.  Winds to tropical storm force only extended out 25 miles (40 km) from the center of circulation.

Tropical Storm Gonzalo will move through an environment favorable for intensification.  Gonzalo will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29.5°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical  wind shear.  Tropical Storm Gonzalo is likely to intensify and it could strengthen into a hurricane during the next 36 hours.  Small tropical cyclones like Gonzalo can change intensity rapidly if they move into a different type of environment.

Tropical Storm Gonzalo will move south of the subtropical high pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean.  The high will steer Gonzalo toward the west.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Gonzalo could approach the Windward Islands on Saturday.  Watches could be issued for some of those islands when Gonzalo moves closer.

Elsewhere, more thunderstorms were developing around a low pressure system over the Gulf of Mexico that is currently designated as Invest 91L.  At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Invest 91L was located at latitude 25.7°N and longitude 87.9°W which put it about 645 miles (1040 km) east-southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas.  The low pressure system was moving toward the west-northwest at 12 m.p.h. (19 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1011 mb.  The National Hurricane Center was indicating the probability was 50% that the low pressure system would develop into a tropical cyclone.

Tropical Depression Seven Forms East of Windward Islands

Tropical Depression Seven formed east of the Windward Islands on Tuesday afternoon.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Depression Seven was located at latitude 9.8°N and longitude 40.4°W which put it about 1420 miles (2285 km) east of the southern Windward Islands.  It was moving toward the west-northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1009 mb.

An area of low pressure between the coast of Africa and the Windward Islands exhibited more organization on Tuesday afternoon and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Depression Seven.  The circulation around Tropical Depression Seven was still organizing.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were developing and the bands were revolving around the center of circulation.  Storms near the center started to generate upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical depression.

Tropical Depression Seven will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  The depression will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29.5°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds will be weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Depression Seven is likely to strengthen into a tropical storm during the next 24 hours.

Tropical Depression Seven will move south of a subtropical high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean.  The high will steer the depression toward the west during the next few days.  On its anticipated track Tropical Depression Seven could approach the Windward Islands on Saturday.

Elsewhere, a tropical wave over the eastern Gulf of Mexico was designated as Invest 91L on Tuesday afternoon.  At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Invest 91L was located at latitude 25.2°N and longitude 84.7°W which put it about 200 miles (320 km) west of Key West, Florida.  It was moving toward the west-northwest at 18 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts: to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1014 mb.  The National Hurricane Center indicated that there was a 40% probability of the formation of a tropical depression.

Major Hurricane Dorian Moves Toward the Carolinas

Major Hurricane Dorian moved toward the Carolinas on Wednesday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Dorian was located at latitude 31.3°N and longitude 79.6°W which put it about 105 miles (170 km) south of Charleston, South Carolina.  Dorian was moving toward the north at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 115 m.p.h. (195 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 140 m.p.h. (220 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 955 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Savannah River, Georgia to the North Carolina/Virginia border including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.  A Hurricane Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from the mouth of the St. Mary’s River, Florida to Savannah River, Georgia.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from the mouth of the St. Mary’s River to Savannah River, Georgia and from the North Carolina/Virginia border to Chincoteague, Virginia.  A Tropical Storm Warning was also in effect for Chesapeak Bay south of Smith Point.  Tropical Storm Watches were in effect for the portion of the coast from Chincoteague, Virginia to Fenwick Island, Delaware, for Chesapeake Bay from Smith Point to Drum Point and for the Tidal Potomac south of Cobb Island.

Hurricane Dorian strengthened back into a major hurricane on Wednesday night as it moved over the warm water in the Gulf Stream.  A large eye with a diameter of 45 miles (75 km) became more circular and symmetrical.  The ring of thunderstorms surrounding the eye became continuous and a little thicker.  The strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Other bands of showers and thunderstorms revolving around the core of Hurricane Dorian also got stronger.  Storms around the core of Dorian generated upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the hurricane and the surface pressure decreased.

The circulation around Hurricane Dorian increased in size on Wednesday.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 200 miles (320 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Hurricane Dorian was 20.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 22.6 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 43.2.  Hurricane Dorian was capable of causing widespread major damage.

Hurricane Dorian will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 12 hours.  Dorian will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there is little vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Dorian could get a little stronger during the night.  An upper level trough over the central U.S. will move toward Hurricane Dorian on Thursday.  The upper level trough will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of the hurricane.  Those winds will cause the vertical wind shear to increase, which will cause Dorian to start to weaken.

Hurricane Dorian will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the western Atlantic Ocean.  The ridge will steer Dorian toward the north on Wednesday night.  The upper level trough will turn Hurricane Dorian toward the northeast on Thursday.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Dorian could approach the coast of South Carolina on Thursday morning.  Dorian will move along the coast of North Carolina on Thursday afternoon and Thursday night.

Even if the center of Hurricane Dorian stays just south of the coast of South Carolina and North Carolina, the large circulation means that locations near the coast are likely to get hurricane force winds.  Winds blowing water toward the coast could cause storm surges of 5 to 8 feet (1.5 to 2.5 meters) in some locations.  Dorian could also drop locally heavy rain and cause flash flooding  near the coast.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Fernand made landfall north of La Pesca, Mexico on Wednesday and Tropical Storm Gabrielle developed south of the Azores.  Ar 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Fernand was located at latitude 25.0°N and longitude 99.0°W which put it about 100 miles (160 km) west-northwest of La Pesca, Mexico.  Dorian was moving toward the west-northwest at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.

At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Gabrielle was located at latitude 21.5°N and longitude 34.4°W which put it about 1220 miles (1965 km) south-southwest of the Azores.  Gabrielle was moving toward the northwest at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 m/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1002 mb.

Hurricane Dorian Moves Parallel to Florida Coast

Hurricane Dorian moved parallel to the east coast of Florida on Tuesday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Hurricane Dorian was at latitude 28.4°N and longitude 79.0°W which put it about 95 miles (155 km/h) east of Cape Canaveral, Florida.  Dorian was moving toward the north-northwest at 6 m.p.h. (9 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 110 m.p.h. (175 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 130 m.p.h. (215 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 959 mb.

Hurricane Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Sebastian Inlet to Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida and from Savannah River, Georgia to Surf City, North Carolina.  Hurricane Watches were in effect for the portion of the coast from Ponte Vedra Beach to Savannah River, Georgia and from Surf City, North Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia border including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portion of the coast from Jupiter Inlet to Sebastian Inlet, Florida and from Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida to Savannah, River, Georgia.  Tropical Storm Watches were also in effect for the Northwestern Bahamas including the Abacos and Grand Bahama Island.  Tropical Storm Watches were in effect for the portion of the coast from the North Carolina/Virginia border to Chincoteague, Virginia and for Chesapeake Bay south of Smith Point.

Although Hurricane Dorian was moving again, it exhibited the structure of a hurricane that had been stationary for a day and had undergone an eyewall replacement cycle.  There was a large ragged eye with a diameter of 35 miles (55 km) at the center of circulation.  The eye was surrounded by a broken ring of thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Multiple bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the large core of Hurricane Dorian.  Storm near the core were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the hurricane.

An eyewall replacement cycle caused the size of the circulation around Hurricane Dorian to increase.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Wind to tropical storm force extended out about 175 miles (285 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Hurricane Dorian was 19.2.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 19.9 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 39.1.

Hurricane Dorian will move through an environment favorable for intensification on Wednesday.  Dorian will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  However, the large size of Hurricane Dorian will limit potential intensification.  Hurricane Dorian could intensify a little on Wednesday.  An upper level trough over the U.S. will approach Dorian on Wednesday night.  The trough will produce southwesterly winds which will cause more vertical wind shear on Thursday.

Hurricane Dorian will move around the western end of a subtropical high pressure system over the western Atlantic Ocean on Wednesday.  The high will steer Dorian toward the north-northwest.  The upper level trough will turn Dorian toward the northeast on Wednesday night.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Dorian will move nearly parallel to the east coast of Florida on Wednesday.  Dorian could approach the coast of South Carolina by Wednesday night.

Elsewhere Tropical Storm Fernand was over the western Gulf of Mexico and Tropical Depression was west of the Cabo Verde Islands.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Fernand was located at latitude 23.2°N and longitude 96.4°W which put it about 100 miles (155 km) east-southeast of La Pesca, Mexico.  Fernand was moving toward the west at 3 m.p.h. (5 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Puerto Altimira, Mexico to the Mouth of the Rio Grande, River.

At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Depression Eight was located at latitude 19.1°N and longitude 32.8°W which put it about 615 miles (995 km) west-northwest of the Cabo Verde Islands.  It was moving toward the northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

Tropical Storm Fernand Forms Over W. Gulf of Mexico, Dorian Edges Away From Bahamas

Tropical Storm Fernand formed over the western Gulf of Mexico and powerful Hurricane Dorian edged slowly away from the Northwestern Bahamas on Tuesday afternoon.  At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Fernand was located at latitude 23.5°N and longitude 95.3°W which put it about 160 miles (260 km) east of La Pesca, Mexico.  Fernand was moving toward the west at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1004 mb.

The government of Mexico issued a Tropical Storm Warning that was in effect for the portion of the coast from Barra del Tordo to the mouth of the Rio Grande River.

The circulation around an area of low pressure over the western Gulf of Mexico exhibited greater organization on Tuesday afternoon and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Storm Fernand.  The circulation around Fernand consisted of a broad area of lower pressure.  One rainband wrapped around the northern periphery of the circulation and a second rainband wrapped around the western periphery of the circulation.  Bands in other parts of the circulation consisted primarily of showers and low clouds.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 105 miles (170 km) from the center of the circulation on the western side of Fernand.

Tropical Storm Fernand will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 24 hours.  Fernand will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Fernand is likely to strengthen during the next 24 hours.  However, the broad circulation will limit how fast the tropical storm can intensify.

Tropical Storm Fernand will move south of an ridge of high pressure over the southern U.S.  The ridge will Fernand toward the west-northwest during the next day or two.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Fernand is expected to make landfall on the coast of Mexico between La Pesca and Mezquital on Wednesday.  Fernand will bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain.  The rain could cause flash floods where Tropical Storm Fernand moves inland over northeastern Mexico.  Fernand could also cause a storm surge of 6 feet (2 meters) along the coast.

Elsewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, powerful Hurricane Dorian began to edge slowly away from the Northwestern Bahamas.  At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Hurricane Dorian was located at latitude 27.5°N and longitude 78.7°W which put it about 105 miles (170 km) east of Ft. Pierce, Florida.  Dorian was moving toward the northwest at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 110 m.p.h. (175 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 130 m.p.h. (215 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 959 mb.

Hurricane Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Jupiter Inlet to Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida and from Edisto Beach to South Santee River, South Carolina.  Hurricane Watches were in effect for the portions of the coast from Ponte Vedra Beach to Edisto Beach and from South Santee River to Duck, North Carolina including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Deerfield Beach to Jupiter Inlet, Florida and from Ponte Vedra Beach to Edisto Beach.  The Hurricane Warnings for the Northwestern Bahamas including the Abacos and Grand Bahama Island had been changed to Tropical Storm Warnings, since Dorian was moving away from those locations.

Hurricane Dorian finally started to move around the western end of a subtropical high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean on Tuesday.  An upper level trough over the U.S. will turn Dorian toward the northeast on Wednesday.  On its anticipated track the center of Hurricane Dorian will stay offshore and move parallel to east coast of Florida.  A small deviation to the west could bring the core of Dorian close to the coast.  The center of Hurricane Dorian could move very close to the coast of South Carolina and North Carolina on Thursday.  The circulation around Hurricane Dorian increased in size on Tuesday.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 170 miles (275 km) from the center.

Tropical Storm Florence Still Dropping Heavy Rain on the Carolinas

Tropical Storm Florence was still dropping heavy rain on parts of the Carolinas on Saturday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Storm Florence was located at latitude 33.6°N and longitude 79.9°W which put it about 45 miles (75 km) south-southwest of Florence, South Carolina.  Tropical Storm Florence was moving toward the west at 2 m.p.h. (3 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 997 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from South Santee River, South Carolina to Surf City, North Carolina.

Although the inner core of Tropical Storm Florence continues to spin down slowly, the circulation covers much of North Carolina, South Carolina, and eastern Georgia.  The center and much of the circulation around Florence is over land, but strong inflow east of the center continues to transport moist air over North Carolina.  The strongest winds are occurring over the Atlantic Ocean in two rainbands east of the center.  Winds to tropical storm force extend out about 150 miles (240 km) east of the center of circulation over the Atlantic Ocean.  The winds over North Carolina and South Carolina are generally blowing at less than tropical storm force.  Thunderstorms in some rainbands could produce gusts to tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Florence has moved very slowly toward the west during the past 24 hours.  The extremely slow motion has allowed bands of showers and thunderstorms to persist over locations and rainfall totals have exceed a foot (0.3 meters) in some places.  Parts of the Cape Fear River and Trent River have already reached major flood levels.  Portions of the Neuse River are at moderate flood levels.  Sections of Interstates 95 and 40 are closed because of high water.

The high pressure system that has been blocking a northward movement of Tropical Storm Florence will start to shift to the east on Sunday.  The eastward movement of the high will allow Tropical Storm Florence to move a little faster and turn toward the northwest.  Florence could be over western North Carolina on Sunday evening.  Wind blowing up the eastern slopes of the will enhance rainfall.  Tropical Storm Florence will continue to drop heavy rain over North Carolina and South Carolina on Sunday.  The heavy rain could cause rivers and streams to go higher.

Elsewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, Tropical Storm Helene neared the Azores, Tropical Storm Isaac weakened to a tropical wave over the Caribbean Sea and Tropical Storm Joyce was pulled northeast in the wake of Helene.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Storm Helene was located at latitude 40.2°N and longitude 32.1°W which put it about 75 miles (120 km) northwest of Flores, Azores.  Helene was moving toward the northeast at 24 m.p.h. (39 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 989 mb.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for all of the Azores.

At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Storm Joyce was located at latitude 33.1°N and longitude 39.6°W which put it about 785 miles (1260 km) west-southwest of the Azores.  Joyce was moving toward the east-northeast at 17 m.p.h. (28 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1002 mb.