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Tropical Cyclone Amphan Makes Landfall Near Kolkata

The center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan made landfall on the north coast of the Bay of Bengal near Kolkata, India on Wednesday.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 22.7°N and longitude 88.4°E which put it about 30 miles (50 km) south-southwest of Kolkata, India.  Amphan was moving toward the north-northeast at 19 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 105 m.p.h. (165 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 979 mb.

The center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan made landfall near Haldia, India which is a little to the south-southwest of Kolkata on Wednesday.  The maximum sustained wind speed in Amphan at the time of landfall was 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  Tropical Cyclone Amphan weakened after the center moved over land.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out 20 miles (30 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 160 miles (260 km) to the southeast of the center.  The stronger winds were occurring near the center of circulation and over the northern Bay of Bengal.

When Tropical Cyclone Amphan approached the coast, the heaviest rain occurred in bands in the western side of Amphan.  Heavy rain fell over parts of northern Odisha and West Bengal.  After the center of Amphan made landfall and the tropical cyclone moved inland, the heaviest rain fell in bands in the northeastern part of the circulation.  Heavy rain was falling over parts of Bangladesh.

Strong southerly winds blowing toward the north coast of the Bay of Bengal pushed water toward Bangladesh and the coast of India south of Kolkata.  The coast around the northern Bay of Bengal is very vulnerable to storm surges caused by tropical cyclones.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan likely caused a significant storm surge along that coast.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the northwestern part of a high pressure system over Southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north-northeast.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move across western Bangladesh and northeastern India.  The circulation around Amphan will continue to weaken as the system moves farther inland.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan will continue to drop locally heavy rain over Bangladesh and northeastern India.  Heavy rain could cause flash floods to occur in some locations.

Large Dangerous Tropical Cyclone Amphan Nears Kolkata and Bangladesh

Large dangerous Tropical Cyclone Amphan neared Kolkata, India and Bangladesh late on Tuesday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 18.8°N and longitude 87.0°E which put it about 310 miles (505 km) south-southwest of Kolkata, India.  Amphan was moving toward the north at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 115 m.p.h. (185 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 145 m.p.h. (230 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 951 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan was the equivalent of a major hurricane as it neared Kolkata, India and the coast of Bangladesh on Tuesday.  An eyewall replacement cycle caused the circulation around Amphan to expand in size.  Some satellite images showed evidence of the remnants of the original small inner eye inside the larger second eye.  The larger eye was surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Tropical Cyclone Amphan.

Tropical Cyclone Aphan had a large circulation that covered much of the northern Bay of Bengal.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out 50 miles (80 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 230 miles (370 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Amphan was 20.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 20.8 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 41.4.  Amphan was capable of causing major damage.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move through an environment capable of supporting a large powerful tropical cyclone during the next 12 to 18 hours.  Amphan will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move under the western side of an upper level ridge.  The upper level winds will be weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  The circulation around Tropical Cyclone Amphan could start to pull in some drier air that is over eastern India when it get closer to the coast.  Amphan will remain a large dangerous tropical cyclone until it makes landfall on the north coast of the Bay of Bengal.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the western end of a high pressure system over Southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north-northeast during the next 36 hours.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan will pass near Puri, India in about 12 hours.  The center of Amphan could make landfall south of Kolkata near Haldia, India in about 18 hours.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan could cause major damage.  The wind will blow water toward the coast around the northern Bay of Bengal.  Amphan could generate a storms surge of up to 12 to 15 feet (3 to 4 meters) along past of the Bangladesh coast.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan will also drop heavy rain over parts of northeastern India and Bangladesh when it moves inland.  The heavy rain is likely to cause floods in some locations.

 

Tropical Cyclone Amphan Intensifies Into Equivalent of Cat. 5 Hurricane

Tropical Cyclone Amphan intensified into equivalent of a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale over the Bay of Bengal on Monday.  At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Monday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 13.9°N and longitude 86.5°E which put it about 635 miles (1025 km) south-southwest of Kolkata, India.  Amphan was moving toward the north at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 160 m.p.h. (260 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 195 m.p.h. (315 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 909 mb.

The circulation around Tropical Cyclone Amphan appeared to develop a concentric eyewall structure on Monday.  The inner end of a rainband wrapped around the original small eye and eyewall.  The inner eye had a diameter of 10 miles (16 km).  A ring of strong thunderstorms surrounded the inner eye and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  An outer eyewall with a diameter of 50 mile (80 km) surrounded the inner eye.    Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the concentric eyewalls.  Storms in the core of Amphan were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone in all directions.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan had a large circulation.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 200 miles (325 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Amphan was 35.0.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 16.5 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI0 was 51.5.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan was capable of causing catastrophic damage.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move through an environment very favorable for a strong tropical cyclone during the next 36 hours.  Amphan will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 31°C.  It will move under an upper level ridge where the upper level winds are weak.  There will be little vertical wind shear.  The eyewall replacement cycle will stop the intensification of Tropical Cyclone Amphan.  Amphan will weaken, at least temporarily, when the inner eyewall dissipates.  When that occurs the strongest winds will be occurring in the outer eyewall.  The eyewall replacement cycle could cause the circulation to increase in size.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the western end of a high pressure system over Southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north-northeast.  On its anticipate track the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan will approach the coast around the northern Bay of Bengal in 36 hours.  Amphan will be a large dangerous tropical cyclone when it approaches the coast.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan will generate a significant storm surge along the coast of Bangladesh.  Amphan will cause major wind damage.  It will drop locally heavy rain over northeast India and Bangladesh.  Freshwater flooding will occur.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan Rapidly Intensifies Into Equivalent of Major Hurricane

Tropical Cyclone Amphan rapidly intensified into the equivalent of a major hurricane over the Bay of Bengal on Sunday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 13.3°N and longitude 86.4°E which put it about 675 miles (1090 km) south-southwest of Kolkata, India.  Amphan was moving toward the north at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 150 m.p.h. (240 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 185 m.p.h. (295 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 919 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan rapidly intensified into a large powerful tropical cyclone on Sunday night.  A small circular eye was at the center of circulation.  The eye was surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Amphan.  Storms near the core were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone in all directions.

The circulation around Tropical Cyclone Amphan grew in size on Sunday.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out 40 miles (65 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 210 miles (335 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Amphan was 31.6.  The Hurricane Size Index was 16.8 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 48.4.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan was capable of causing widespread significant damage.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will remain in an environment capable of supporting a strong tropical cyclone during the next 36 to 48 hours.  Amphan will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 31°C.  It will move under an upper level ridge.  The upper level wind will be weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  The ridge will actually enhance the upper level divergence.  If a rainband wraps around the existing eye and eyewall, then an eyewall replacement cycle could cause Tropical Cyclone Amphan to weaken.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan is likely to remain a large, powerful tropical cyclone during the next 48 hours.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the western end of a high pressure system over Southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north.  On its anticipated track Tropical Cyclone Amphan could approach the coast of Bangladesh in 48 hours.  Amphan is could still be the equivalent of a major hurricane when it reaches Bangladesh.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan could generate a significant storm surge at the coast.  Amphan will cause major wind damage and heavy rain could cause freshwater flooding.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan Strengthens to Equivalent of Hurricane/Typhoon

Tropical Cyclone Amphan strengthened to the equivalent of a hurricane/typhoon on Sunday.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 12.3°N and longitude 86.4°E which put it about 695 miles (1120 km) south-southwest of Kolkata, India.  Amphan was moving toward the north at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h (135 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 105 m.p.h. (165 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 969 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan continued to intensify on Sunday.  A small circular eye with a diameter of 10 miles (16 km) developed at the center of circulation.  A ring of strong thunderstorms surround the eye and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Amphan.  Storms near the core were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone in all directions.  Wins to hurricane/typhoon force extended out 30 miles (50 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 140 miles (225 km) from the center.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 36 to 48 hours.  Amphan will move over water where Sea Surface Temperature is near 31°C.  It will move under an upper level ridge over the Bay of Bengal.  The winds in the upper level ridge are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan will continue to intensify and it is likely to strengthen into the equivalent of a major hurricane.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the western end of a high pressure system over Southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north during the next 48 hours.  On its anticipated track Tropical Cyclone Amphan will approach the coast around the northern Bay of Bengal in less than 72 hours.  Amphan will bring strong winds and locally heavy rain to northeast India and to Bangladesh.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan is likely to generate a significant storm surge along the northern coast of the Bay of Bengal.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan Develops Quickly Over Bay of Bengal

Tropical Cyclone Amphan developed quickly over the Bay of Bengal on Saturday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Cyclone Amphan was located at latitude 11.2°N and longitude 86.3°E which put it about 430 miles (695 km) west of Port Blair.  Amphan was moving toward the north at 8 m.p.h (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 992 mb.

The circulation around a low pressure system over the Bay of Bengal organized quickly on Saturday and the Indian Meteorological Department designated the system as Tropical Cyclone Amphan.  Thunderstorms formed around the center of Amphan and recent microwave images suggested that an eye could be forming.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Tropical Cyclone Amphan.  The stronger bands were in the western half of the circulation.  Storms near the core of the circulation were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone in all directions.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 100 miles (160 km) from the center of Amphan.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move through an environment very favorable for intensification.  Amphan will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 31°C.  It will move under the axis of an upper level ridge over the Bay of Bengal.  The upper level winds are weak near the axis of the ridge and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan is likely to intensify rapidly during the next 36 hours.  Amphan is likely to strengthen into the equivalent of a hurricane/typhoon within 24 hours and it could become the equivalent of a major hurricane within 36 to 48 hours.

Tropical Cyclone Amphan will move around the eastern end of a high pressure system over southeast Asia.  The high will steer Amphan toward the north during the next several days.  On its anticipated track Tropical Cyclone Amphan could approach the coast of northeast Indian and Bangladesh in 72 hours.  Amphan will likely be the equivalent of a major hurricane when it approaches the coast.  Tropical Cyclone Amphan could generate a catastrophic storm surge along the north coast of the Bay of Bengal.

Powerful Tropical Cyclone Fani Makes Landfall in India

Powerful Tropical Cyclone Fani made landfall near Puri, India on Thursday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Cyclone Fani was located at latitude 19.4°N and longitude 85.8°E which put it about 25 miles (40 km) south of Puri, India.  Fani was moving toward the north-northeast at 11 m.p.h. (17 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 150 m.p.h. (240 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 185 m.p.h. (295 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 922 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Fani is a large dangerous system.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extend out about 70 miles (110 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extend out about 225 miles (360 km) from the center over the Bay of Bengal.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Fani is 31.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) is 25.6 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) is 57.2.  Tropical Cyclone Fani has the potential to cause widespread significant damage.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will cause the greatest wind damage along the northeast coast of Odisha.  It could also produce a significant storm surge along the coast.  The surge will be highest in bays, estuaries and mouths of rivers.  Fani will drop heavy rain over northeast Odisha, West Bengal and portions of Bangladesh.  The heavy rain is likely to cause inland fresh water floods in some locations.  Wind and rain could cause damage around Kolkata (Calcutta), India.

An upper level trough over India will steer Tropical Cyclone Fani toward the northeast during the next 48 hours.  On its anticipated path Fani will pass near Bhubaneshwar, Cuttack and Baleshwar in Odisha.  Tropical Cyclone Fani could still be the equivalent of a hurricane/typhoon when it passes near those locations.  Fani will weaken steadily while it moves northeast.  It is likely to be the equivalent of a tropical storm when it passes near Kolkata.  Tropical Cyclone Fani will weaken to the equivalent of a tropical depression when it passes over Bangladesh, but it could still drop heavy rain around Dhaka.  Serious flooding could occur in Bangladesh while Fani weakens.

Dangerous Tropical Cyclone Fani Near Northeast India

Dangerous Tropical Cyclone Fani neared the coast of northeastern India on Thursday.  Fani rapidly intensified into the nearly the equivalent of a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Cyclone Fani was located at latitude 18.0°N and longitude 84.9°E which put it about 100 miles (160 km) east of Visakhapatnam, India.  Fani was moving toward the north at 11 m.p.h. (17 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 155 m.p.h. (250 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 190 m.p.h. (305 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 918 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Fani intensified rapidly during recent hours.  A circular eye with a diameter of 20 miles (32 km) developed at the center of circulation.  A ring of strong thunderstorms surrounded the eye and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Tropical Cyclone Fani.  Storms near the core were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone.

The circulation around Tropical Cyclone Fani grew larger as it intensified.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 185 miles (295 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Fani was 33.3.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 21.7 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 55.0.  Tropical Cyclone Fani was capable of causing widespread significant damage.

Tropical Cyclone Fani is moving around the western end of a subtropical ridge.  The ridge is steering Fani toward the north.  On its anticipated track Tropical Cyclone Fani is likely to make landfall near Brahmapur, India in about 12 hours.  An upper level trough over India will steer Fani toward the northeast after it makes landfall.  Tropical Cyclone Fani could pass near Puri, Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Kolkata (Calcutta), India.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will remain in a favorable environment during the 12 hours prior to landfall.  Fani will be over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through an environment where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Cyclone Fani will weaken after landfall.  The upper level trough over India will produce stronger southwesterly winds, which will increase the vertical wind shear after Fani makes landfall.  More wind shear and more friction over the land will cause Tropical Cyclone Fani to weaken to the equivalent of a tropical storm within 24 hours after landfall occurs.

Tropical Cyclone Fani is a dangerous tropical cyclone.  The strengthen and size of Fani will create the potential for widespread significant damage.  The counterclockwise circulation will cause the winds to blow water toward the coast along the northern Bay of Bengal.  Tropical Cyclone Fani could generate a storm surge of 15 to 20 feet (4.5 to 6.0 meters) in bays, estuaries and the mouths of rivers which act as funnels during storm surges.  Heavy rain could cause inland fresh water flooding in parts of northeastern India and Bangladesh.  The greatest threats are to the Indian states of Odisha (Orissa) and West Bengal.

Tropical Cyclone Fani Strengthens to Equivalent of Major Hurricane

Tropical Cyclone Fani strengthened to the equivalent of a major hurricane on Tuesday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Cyclone Fani was located at latitude 14.1°N and longitude 83.9°E which put it about 670 miles (1080 km) south-southwest of Kolkata (Calcutta), India.  Fani was moving toward the northwest at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 120 m.p.h. (195 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 150 m.p.h. (240 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 946 mb.

Tropical Cyclone Fani strengthened on Tuesday.  A small eye emerged at the center of circulation.  The eye was surround by a ring of thunderstorms.  The storms were stronger in the western half of the ring and that was where the strongest winds were.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Tropical Cyclone Fani.  The stronger bands were south and west of the center of Fani.  It appeared that a little drier air may have been pulled into the northern half of the circulation and the bands were weaker in that part of the circulation.  Storms near the core were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone.

Tropical Cyclone Fani had a moderately sized circulation.  Winds to hurricane/typhoon force extended out about 40 miles (65 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 150 miles (240 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Tropical Cyclone Fani was 22.1.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 14.7 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 36.8.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will remain in an environment favorable for strong tropical cyclones during the next 24 to 36 hours.  Fani will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move near the western end of an upper level ridge and the upper level winds will not be too strong.  The major inhibiting factor will be the drier air over the northern half of the circulation.  Tropical Cyclone Fani could maintain its intensity and even strengthen during the next 24 hours if the drier air moistens over the warm water of the Bay of Bengal.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge on Wednesday.  Fani will move more toward the north when it rounds the end of the ridge.  An upper level trough approaching India from the west will turn Tropical Cyclone Fani toward the northeast in about 18 to 24 hours.  On its anticipated track Fani could approach the coast of Orissa state southwest of Kolkata in about 48 hours.  Tropical Cyclone Fani could bring strong winds to parts of Orissa and West Bengal.  Fani could also cause a significant storm surge along portions of the coast around the northern Bay of Bengal.  Locally heavy rain could also cause floods in Orissa and West Bengal.

Tropical Cyclone Fani Strengthens to Equivalent of Hurricane/Typhoon

Tropical Cyclone Fani strengthened to the equivalent of a hurricane/typhoon over the Bay of Bengal on Monday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Monday the center of Tropical Cyclone Fani was located at latitude 11.4°N and longitude 86.9°E which put it about 800 miles (1290 km) south of Kolkata (Calcutta), India.  Fani was moving toward the north at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 974 mb.

The circulation around Tropical Cyclone Fani exhibited greater organization on Monday.  The inner end of a rainband wrapped most of the way around the eastern and northern sides of the center of circulation.  Although there was still a break on the southwestern side of the center, an eye may have been forming at the center of circulation.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Tropical Cyclone Fani and the circulation was much more symmetrical.  Storm around the core were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical cyclone.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 140 miles (225 km) from the center of circulation.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  Fani will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 31°C.  It will move under the axis of an upper level ridge where the winds are weak.  Very warm water and little vertical wind shear will allow Tropical Cyclone Fani to intensify during the next 48 hours.  It could intensify rapidly once the inner core is fully developed.  Fani is likely to strengthen into the equivalent of a major hurricane during the next  2 to 3 days.

Tropical Cyclone Fani will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge during the next few days.  The ridge will steer Fani in a generally northward direction.  On its anticipated track Tropical Cyclone Fani could approach the coast of India southwest of Kolkata in three or four days.  Fani could be the equivalent of a major hurricane when it approaches the coast.  Tropical Cyclone Fani has the potential to cause major wind damage.  It will also generate a dangerous storm surge along the coast.  Heavy rain will create the potential for fresh water flooding in inland locations.  The greatest risks at this time are for the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal.