Tag Archives: Taiwan

Tropical Storm Tapah Develops East of Taiwan

Tropical Storm Tapah developed east of Taiwan on Thursday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Tapah was located at latitude 23.3°N and longitude 126.5°E which put it about 150 miles (245 km) east-southeast of Ishigaki, Japan.  Tapah was moving toward the west at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 965 mb.

A distinct low level center of circulation formed on the northern side of an area of thunderstorms east of Taiwan on Thursday and the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system as Tropical Storm Tapah.  The distribution of thunderstorms around Tapah was asymmetrical.  Most of the thunderstorms  were occurring in bands in the southern half of the circulation.  Bands in the northern half of the tropical storm consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  Storm on the southern side of the center began to generate upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the tropical storm.  The circulation around Tropical Storm Tapah was very large.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 250 miles (400 km) from the center of circulation.

Tropical Storm Tapah will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  Tapah will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Some drier air north of Tropical Storm Tapah could inhibit the development of bands of thunderstorms on the northern side of the circulation.  Tropical Storm Tapah is likely to intensify and it could strengthen into a typhoon during the weekend.

Tropical Storm Tapah will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Tapah more toward the northwest on Friday.  Tapah will move more toward the north when it rounds the western end of the ridge.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Tapah could move over the southern Ryukyu Islands in about 12 hours.  The center of Tapah could pass west of Okinawa in about 24 hours.

Lingling Strengthens to Typhoon South of Ryukyu Islands

Former Tropical Storm Lingling strengthened to a typhoon south of the Ryukyu Islands on Tuesday.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Typhoon Lingling was located at latitude 21.7°N and longitude 124.3°E which put it about 180 miles (295 km) south of Ishigaki, Japan.  Lingling was moving toward the north at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 979 mb.

Typhoon Lingling exhibited much greater organization on Tuesday.  A circular eye with a diameter of 30 miles (50 km) developed at the center of circulation.  The eye was surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Typhoon Lingling.  The strongest rainbands were occurring in the southeastern half of the circulation.  Storms near the core of Lingling were generating upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the typhoon.  Winds to typhoon force extended out about 30 miles from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 140 miles (220 km) from the center.

Typhoon Lingling will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 24 to 48 hours.  Lingling will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Typhoon Lingling is likely to continue to intensify and it could strengthen into the equivalent of a major hurricane in a couple of days.

Typhoon Lingling is moving around the western end of a large subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Lingling toward the north during the next several days.  On its anticipated track Typhoon Lingling could reach the southern Ryukyu Islands within 24 hours.  Lingling will bring strong, gusty winds and heavy rain to those islands.  Typhoon Lingling could approach Kyushu and South Korea in about three days.

Elsewhere over the Western North Pacific Ocean, Tropical Depression Kajiki was dropping heavy rain over parts of Vietnam and Laos.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Depression Kajiki was located at latitude 16.4°N and longitude 107.3°E which put it about 65 miles (105 km) west-northwest of Da Nang, Vietnam.  Kajiki was moving toward the west at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb.

Tropical Storm Kajiki Forms Near Vietnam

Tropical Storm Kajiki formed near the coast of Vietnam on Monday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Kajiki was located at latitude 16.6°N and longitude 107.6°E which put it about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Vinh Linh, Vietnam.  Kajiki was moving toward the southwest at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 996 mb.

The wind speed around a low pressure system just east of the coast of Vietnam increased to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) on Monday and the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system as Tropical Storm Kajiki.  The distribution of thunderstorms around Kajiki was asymmetrical.  Many of the stronger thunderstorms were occurring in bands in the western half of the circulation.  Bands in the eastern half of Tropical Storm Kajiki contained fewer thunderstorms.  Kajiki was moving south of an upper level ridge over eastern Asia.  The ridge was producing northeasterly winds which were blowing toward the top of the tropical storm.  Those winds were causing moderate vertical wind shear and they were the reason for the asymmetrical distribution of thunderstorms.

The upper level ridge will steer Tropical Storm Kajiki toward the southwest during the next 12 to 24 hours.  On it anticipated track Kajiki will reach the coast of Vietnam within 12 hours.  Even though Tropical Storm Kajiki will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C, it will have only a few hours to strengthen before the center reaches the coast.  Kajiki will bring some gusty winds to the coast, but the greater risk is for heavy rain.  Tropical Storm Kajiki will drop locally heavy rain over parts of central Vietnam and northern Laos.  Heavy rain could cause flash floods in some locations.

Elsewhere over the Western North Pacific Ocean, Tropical Storm Lingling was strengthening as it north toward the southern Ryukyu Islands.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Lingling was located at latitude 19.5°N and longitude 124.1°E which put it about 565 miles (915 km) south-southwest of Okinawa.  Lingling was moving toward the north-northwest at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 994 mb.  Tropical Storm Lingling is forecast to strengthen into a typhoon before it reaches the southern Ryukyu Islands.

Tropical Storm Lingling Forms East of Luzon

Tropical Storm Lingling formed east of Luzon on Sunday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Lingling was located at latitude 15.1°N and longitude 126.1°E which put it about 300 miles (485 km) east of Luzon.  Lingling was moving toward the northwest at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.

A distinct center of circulation developed in an area of thunderstorms east of Luzon on Sunday night and the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system as Tropical Storm Lingling.  The circulation around Tropical Storm Lingling was still organizing.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were forming around the center of circulation.  Storms around the center of circulation were starting to generate upper level divergence.

Tropical Storm Lingling will move through an environment favorable for intensification.  Lingling will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move near the western end of an upper level ridge.  The ridge will produce southerly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear, but the shear will not be strong enough to prevent intensification.  Tropical Storm Lingling will intensify and it could strengthen into a typhoon in a few days.

Tropical Storm Lingling will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Lingling toward the north-northwest.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Storm Lingling will remain east of Luzon.  Lingling will approach Taiwan and the southern Ryukyu Islands in about 36 hours.

Tropical Storm Bailu Brings Wind and Rain to Taiwan

Tropical Storm Bailu brought wind and rain to Taiwan early on Saturday.  At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Storm Bailu was located at latitude 22.6°N and longitude 120.2°E which put it about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Hengchun, Taiwan.  Bailu was moving toward the northwest at 15 m.p.h. (24 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 986 mb.

The broad center of Tropical Storm Bailu moved across southern Taiwan early on Saturday.  Bailu produced winds to tropical storm force over parts of Taiwan, but its greater effect was heavy rain.  Since Tropical Storm Bailu passed near the southern end of Taiwan, its counterclockwise rotation produced easterly winds over much of Taiwan.  Those winds pushed air up the mountains, which enhanced rising motion and caused heavy rain to fall over eastern Taiwan.  Estimates of rainfall from radars indicated that up to one foot (300 mm) of rain could have fallen over southeastern Taiwan.  That much rain is likely to have caused flash floods in some locations.

Tropical Storm Bailu will continue to move southwest of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will continue to steer Bailu toward the northwest.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Storm Bailu will make landfall on the east coast of China between Xiamen and Shantou in about 12 hours.  Bailu will bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain to parts of eastern China.  Heavy rain could also produce flash floods in some locations.

Tropical Storm Bailu on Track Toward Taiwan

Tropical Storm Bailu remained on a track toward Taiwan on Thursday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Bailu was located at latitude 19.0°N and longitude 125.6°E which put it about 385 miles (615 km) east-southeast of Hengchun, Taiwan.  Bailu was moving toward the northwest at 15 m.p.h. (24 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 990 mb.

The circulation around Tropical Storm Bailu was large.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 170 miles (280 km) from the center of circulation.  Many of the stronger thunderstorms in Bailu were occurring in bands in the southern half of the circulation.  Bands in the northern half of the circulation consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  Tropical Storm Bailu was moving south of an upper level ridge.  The ridge was causing sinking motion to the north of Bailu which appeared to be limiting the development of taller thunderstorms in the northern half of the circulation.

Aside from the sinking motion north of Tropical Storm Bailu, it will move through an environment favorable for intensification.  Bailu will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are not too strong and there will not be a lot of vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Bailu could intensify on Friday if more thunderstorms develop around the center of circulation.  There is a chance that Bailu could strengthen into a typhoon.

Tropical Storm Bailu will move around the southwestern part of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Bailu toward the northwest.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Bailu could approach southern Taiwan in about 24 hours.  Bailu could be a typhoon by that time.  It will bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain to Taiwan.  The locally heavy rain could cause flash floods in some locations.

Tropical Storm Bailu Forms East of Luzon

Tropical Storm Bailu formed east of Luzon on Wednesday.  At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Bailu was located at latitude 15.4°N and longitude 131.6°E which put it about 930 miles (1500 km) southeast of Taipei, Taiwan.  Bailu was moving toward the northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb.

A low pressure system east of northern Luzon strengthened on Wednesday and the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system as Tropical Storm Bailu.  The circulation around Bailu was gradually exhibiting greater organization.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were forming and the bands were starting to revolve around the center of the tropical storm.  There were more thunderstorms in the bands on the western side of Tropical Storm Bailu.  Storms near the center of circulation were beginning to generate upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from Bailu.

Tropical Storm Bailu will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next two to three days.  Bailu will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28.5°C.  It will move southeast of an upper level ridge that extends from eastern Asia over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will produce northeasterly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear, but the shear will not be strong enough to prevent intensification.  Tropical Storm Bailu will intensify during the next several days and it could strengthen into a typhoon.

Tropical Storm Bailu will move south of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Bailu in a northwesterly direction.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Bailu could approach Taiwan in about 72 hours.  Bailu could be a typhoon by that time.  Bands on the western side of Tropical Storm Bailu could drop locally heavy rain over parts of northern Luzon.  Flash floods could occur in some locations.

Typhoon Lekima Moves Through Southern Ryukyu Islands

Powerful Typhoon Lekima moved through the southern Ryukyu Islands on Thursday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Typhoon Lekima was located at latitude 25.8°N and longitude 124.2°E which put it about 405 miles (655 km) south-southeast of Shanghai, China.  Lekima was moving toward the north-northwest at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 140 m.p.h. (225 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 165 m.p.h. (270 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 935 mb.

An inner rainband wrapped around the original eye and eyewall of Typhoon Lekima and a larger outer eye formed around the original eye.  The inner eye remained intact and the strongest winds were occurring in a small ring of thunderstorms around the inner eye.  The diameter of the outer eye was about 60 miles (95 km).  Additional bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the two concentric eyewalls.

The formation of two concentric eyewalls increased the size of the circulation around Typhoon Lekima.  Winds to typhoon force extended out about 80 miles (130 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 275 miles (445 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Typhoon Lekima was 28.3.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 28.1 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 56.4.  Those indices indicated that Typhoon Lekima was capable of causing widespread significant damage.

The inner eye of Typhoon Lekima wobbled between Ishigakijima and Miyakojima on Thursday.  The inner eyewall appeared to pass over Taramajima and Minnajima.  No reports were available from a weather station on Taramajima.  Stations on Ishigakijima and Miyakojima reports winds to tropical storm force, but the strong inner eye passed between those two islands.

The formation of the larger outer eye probably indicates that an eyewall replacement cycle will occur.  Typhoon Lekima will weaken when the inner eyewall dissipates.  However, the circulation will remain large.  Typhoon Lekima will be in an environment favorable for strong typhoons during the next 24 hours.  Lekima will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28.5°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are not strong and there will not be a lot of vertical wind shear.  Typhoon Lekima will weaken because of an eyewall replacement cycle, but it will remain a large, powerful typhoon.

Typhoon Lekima will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Lekima toward the north-northwest during the next several days.  On its anticipated track Typhoon Lekima could approach the coast of China south of Shanghai in about 24 hours.  It is likely to be a large typhoon at that time.

Elsewhere around the Western North Pacific Ocean, Typhoon Krosa was nearly stationary south of Iwo To on Thursday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Typhoon Krosa was located at latitude 22.1°N and longitude 141.0°E which put it about 195 miles (315 km) south of Iwo To.  Krosa was nearly stationary.  The maximum sustained wind speed was 110 m.p.h. (180 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 130 m.p.h. (210 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 950 mb.

The circulation around Typhoon Krosa was also large.  Winds to typhoon force extended out about 75 miles (120 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 250 miles (405 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Typhoon Krosa was 19.2.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 28.4 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 47.6.

Typhoon Krosa is forecast to move slowly north toward Iwo To on Friday.  On its anticipated track Krosa could approach Iwo To in about 36 hours.  It will be a large typhoon capable of causing serious damage at that time.

Typhoons Lekima and Krosa Threaten Japanese Islands

Typhoons Lekima and Krosa threatened Japanese islands on Wednesday.  Typhoon Lekima posed a serious threat to the southern Ryukyu Islands and Typhoon Krosa was headed for Iwo To.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Typhoon Lekima was located at latitude 22.4°N and longitude 126.0°E which put it about 190 miles (305 km) southeast of Ishigaki, Japan.  Lekmia was moving toward the northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 125 m.p.h. (200 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 155 m.p.h. (250 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 925 mb.

Typhoon Lekima rapidly intensified into the equivalent of a major hurricane on Wednesday.  A small distinct eye was at the center of circulation.  The eye was surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of the circulation.  Storms near the core were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the typhoon in all directions.

Typhoon Lekima had a large circulation.  Winds to typhoon force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 210 miles (335 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Typhoon Lekima was 23.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 21.6 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 44.7.   Those indices indicated that Typhoon Lekima was capable of causing widespread major damage.

Typhoon Lekima will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 24 hours.  Lekima will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will not be a lot of vertical wind shear.  Typhoon Lekima could intensify further during the next day or so.  It is possible that a rainband could wrap around the existing eye and eyewall.  If a rainband wraps around the core of Lekima then an eyewall replacement cycle could cause weakening.

Typhoon Lekima will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the Western North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Lekima toward the northwest on Thursday.  On its anticipated track Typhoon Lekima will reach Ishigaki and the southern Ryukyu Islands in less than 24 hours.  Lekima will be capable of causing major damage to the southern Ryukyu Islands.  Typhoon Lekima will move more toward the north when it moves around the end of the subtropical ridge.  The center of Lekima could be northeast of Taiwan within 36 hours.  Typhoon Lekima could reach the east coast of China in less than three days.

At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Typhoon Krosa was located at latitude 22.1°N and longitude 140.8°E which put it about 210 miles (340 km) south of Iwo To.  Krosa was moving toward the north-northwest at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 970 mb.

Former Tropical Storm Krosa strengthened into a typhoon on Wednesday.  The inner portion of a rainband wrapped around the center of circulation and an eye formed.  The inner part of the rainband closed around the eye and a circular ring of thunderstorms formed a closed eyewall.  The strongest winds were occurring in the eyewall.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Typhoon Krosa.  Storms near the center were pumping mass away to the east of the typhoon.

The circulation around Typhoon Krosa was also large.  Winds to typhoon force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 225 miles (360 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index for Typhoon Krosa was 11.5.  The Hurricane Size Index was 22.5 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index was 34.0.

Typhoon Krosa will move through an environment mostly favorable for intensification.  Krosa will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  Upper level divergence from Typhoon Lekima which is to the west of Typhoon Krosa could cause some vertical wind shear.  The wind shear will not be great enough to prevent intensification, but it could slow the rate at which Typhoon Krosa strengthens.

Typhoon Krose will move into a region where the steering winds are weaker.  Typhoon Krosa is forecast to move slowly toward the north during the next two or three days.  On its anticipated track the center of Typhoon Krosa could be near Iwo To in about 48 hours.

Tropical Storm Francisco Drops Heavy Rain on South Korea

Tropical Storm Francisco dropped heavy rain on parts of South Korea on Tuesday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Francisco was located at latitude 37.4°N and longitude 129.4°E which put it about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Tonghae, South Korea.  Francisco was moving toward the north at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 999 mb.

After moving across Kyushu on Monday night, the center of Tropical Storm Francisco crossed the Korea Strait and moved northward over eastern South Korea.  The center of Francisco made landfall near Busan (Pusan), South Korea.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms in the northern half of Tropical Storm Francisco dropped heavy rain over parts of South Korea.  The rain could create the potential for flash floods in some locations.  Winds to tropical storm force were occurring in the portions of rainbands over the Sea of Japan.

Tropical Storm Francisco will soon reach a region where the westerly winds in the middle latitudes are blowing.  Those winds will turn Francisco eastward over the Sea of Japan.  Tropical Storm Francisco will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 26°C.  However, the westerly winds in the upper levels will create strong vertical wind shear and significant intensification is not expected.  On its anticipated track, Tropical Storm Francisco could reach Hokkaido in about 48 hours.  Francisco could still be a tropical storm at that time.

Elsewhere over the Western North Pacific Ocean, Lekima strengthened into a typhoon southeast of Taiwan and Tropical Storm Krosa intensified south of Iwo To.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Typhoon Lekima was located at latitude 19.7°N and longitude 127.9°E which put it about 575 miles (925 km) southeast of Taipei, Taiwan.  Lekima was moving toward the northwest at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 967 mb.  Typhoon Lekima could strengthen into the equivalent of a major hurricane and it is forecast to move toward Taiwan and the southern Ryukyu Islands.

At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Krosa was located at latitude 19.9°N and longitude 141.9°E which put it about 360 miles (585 km) south of Iwo To.  Krosa was moving toward the north-northwest at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 990 mb.  Tropical Storm Krosa is forecast to strengthen into a hurricane and to move toward Iwo To.