Tag Archives: Virginia

Tropical Storm Isaias Speeds Past New York City

Tropical Storm Isaias sped past New York City on Tuesday afternoon.  At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Isaias was located at latitude 40.9°N and longitude 75.1°W which put it about 65 miles (105 km) west of New York, New York.  Isaias was moving toward the north-northeast at 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 994 mb.

A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Chincoteague, Virginia to Eastport, Maine including Long Island, Long Island Sound, Block Island, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket.

Tropical Storm Isaias sped up the East Coast of the U.S. on Tuesday and the center of circulation was west of New York City by Tuesday afternoon.  Isaias was still generating an area of winds to tropical storm force over the Atlantic Ocean.  A NOAA buoy at the entrance to New York Harbor measured a sustained wind speed of 57 m.p.h. (83 km/h) and a wind gust of 71 m.p.h. (115 km/h).  JFK airport recently reported a wind gust to 70 m.p.h. (113 km/h).

The eastern side of former Hurricane Isaias produced strong wind gusts along the East Coast of the U.S. from North Carolina to Long Island.  A station at Federal Point, North Carolina reported a gust of 99 m.p.h.  (160 km/h).  Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina had a wind gust to 86 m.p.h. (139 km/h).  Stevensville, Maryland measured a gust of 79 m.p.h. (127 km/h).  South Norfolk, Virginia reported a wind gust to 76 m.p.h. (122 km/h) and Nags Head, North Carolina had a gust of 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  Ocean City, Maryland measured a gust of 69 m.p.h. (111 km/h).

The strong wind gusts caused widespread power outages.  Shear in the lower levels of the atmosphere also contributed to the spinup of a number of tornadoes.  Tropical Storm isaias dropped heavy rain over parts of the northeastern U.S.  Isaias will continue to speed north-northeastward into Canada during the next 12 hours.  Tropical Storm Isaias will gradually weaken and wind speeds should decrease.  Isaias will continue to drop locally heavy rain over eastern New York, western Massachusetts and Vermont for several more hours.  The potential for flash floods in those areas still exists.

Hurricane Isaias Brings Wind and Rain to MidAtlantic States

Hurricane Isaias brought wind and rain to the MidAtlantic states of the U.S. on Tuesday.  Isaias weakened to a tropical storm on Tuesday morning as it moved over eastern Virginia.  At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Isaias was located at latitude 37.7°N and longitude 76.8°W which put it about 15 miles (25 km) south-southeast of Tappahannock, Virginia.  Isaias was moving toward the north-northeast at 33 m.p.h. (54 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 993 mb.

A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Surf City, North Carolina to Eastport, Maine including Albemarle Sound, Pamlico, Sound, Long Island, Long Island Sound, Block Island, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket.

The center of Hurricane Isaias officially made landfall on the coast at Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina.  The maximum sustained wind speed at the time of landfall was 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h).  A weather station at Oak Island, North Carolina measured a sustained wind speed of 76 m.p.h. and a wind gust to 87 m.p.h. (140 km/h).

The center of Isaias moved rapidly toward the north-northeast during the overnight hours and it passed between Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia.  The strongest winds were occurring along the coast and over the Atlantic Ocean on Tuesday morning.  A weather station at Duck, North Carolina measured a sustained wind speed of 48 m.p.h. (78 km/h) and a wind gust of 63 m.p.h. (102 km/h).  A weather station at Poquoson, Virginia measured a sustained wind speed of 39 m.p.h. (63 km/h) and a wind gust to 56 m.p.h. (91 km/h).  A weather station on Third Island which is near the Mouth of Chesapeake Bay recently measured a sustained wind speed of 63 m.p.h. (101 km/h) and a wind gust of 77 m.p.h. (124 km/h).

Tropical Storm Isaias will move rapidly toward the north-northeast during the next 24 hours.  The center of Isaias will pass west of New York City later today.  Tropical Storm Isaias will gradually weaken, but it could bring tropical storm force winds to the northeastern U.S.  Wind shear in the lower levels of Tropical Storm Isaias’ circulation is contributing to the spin up of tornadoes.  Isaias will drop locally heavy rain and flash floods could occur.

Tropical Storm Isaias will take a track similar to the tracks taken by Hurricane Irene in 2011 and Hurricane Isabel in 2003.  Hurricane Irene was similar in strength and a little bit larger than Isaias when it hit North Carolina in 2011.  Irene was already weakening when it hit the coast while Isaias was strengthening at landfall.  According to the Tropical Cyclone Report on the National Hurricane Center’s (NHC) website, Hurricane Irene caused 15.8 billions dollars of damage in the U.S.

Hurricane Isabel was larger and stronger than Isaias was when it made landfall in North Carolina.  Isabel was also weakening at the time of landfall.  According to the Tropical Cyclone Report on NHC’s website for Hurricane Isabel, it caused 5.4 billion dollars of damage in the U.S.

 

Isaias Strengthens Back into a Hurricane

Isaias strengthened back into a hurricane on Monday evening.  At 9:00 p.m. EDT on Monday the center of Hurricane Isaias was located at latitude 33.1°N and longitude 78.8°W which put it about 55 miles (90 km) south-southeast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.  Isaias was moving toward the north-northeast at 18 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 988 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from South Santee River, South Carolina to Surf City, North Carolina.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portion of the coast from Edisto Beach to South Santee River, South Carolina and from Surf City, North Carolina to Stonington, Maine including Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Long Island, Long Island Sound, Block Island, Martha’s Vineyard, and Nantucket.  A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from Stonington, to Eastport, Maine.

The circulation around Hurricane Isaias became much better organized on Monday afternoon.  A reconnaissance aircraft investigating Isaias found winds to hurricane force.  An elliptical eye developed at the center of Hurricane Isaias.  A broken ring of thunderstorms surrounded the elliptical eye and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Isaias.  The strongest rainbands were in the northern half of the circulation.  Bands in the southern half of Hurricane Isaias consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  Winds to hurricane force extended out 25 miles (40 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 125 miles (200 km) from the center.

The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Hurricane Isaias was 12.7.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 15.3 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 28.0.  Hurricane Isaias was capable of causing regional minor damage.

The center of Hurricane Isaias will make landfall between Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and Southport, North Carolina during the next few hours.  Isaias will bring hurricane force winds to the portion of the coast from Myrtle Beach, South Carolina to Surf City, North Carolina.  It will generate a storm surge of 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 meters) along the coast.  Hurricane Isaias will drop heavy rain over extreme eastern South Carolina, eastern North Carolina and eastern Virginia.  Heavy rain could cause flooding in some locations.

The center of Hurricane Isaias will pass just west of Norfolk, Virginia on Tuesday morning.  isaias will weaken when it passes over land, but it will still bring gusty winds over eastern Virginia.  Isaias will pass near New York City on Tuesday evening and it will bring gusty winds to New England on Tuesday night.  Isaias could cause widespread power outages along the East Coast of the U.S.  It will also drop heavy rain east of the Appalachians and flash floods could occur in that region.

Tropical Storm Isaias Turns Toward the Carolinas

Tropical Storm Isaias turned toward the Carolinas on Monday morning.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Monday the center of Tropical Storm Isaias was located at latitude 30.7°N and longitude 80.1°W which put it about 220 miles (350 km) south-southwest of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.  Isaias was moving toward the north at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from South Santee River, South Carolina to Surt City, North Carolina.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Altamaha Sound, Georgia to South Santee River, South Carolina and from Surf City North Carolina to Watch Hill, Rhode Island including Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Long Island and Long Island Sound.  A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from Watch Hill, Rhode Island to Stonington, Maine including Block Island, Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket.

Tropical Storm Isaias seemed to begin another cycle where the thunderstorm activity pulsed down during the overnight hours.  However, visible satellite and radar images seemed to indicate that thunderstorms were starting redevelop on Monday morning.  A band of thunderstorms appeared to be wrapping around the northern side of the circulation.  Thunderstorms were also increasing in bands in the northern and eastern parts of Isaias.  Bands in the southern and western sides of Isaias consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  The circulation of Tropical Storm Isaias could be pulling in some drier air around the southern and western parts of the storm.  That is a fairly typical occurrence with tropical systems moving up the East Coast of the U.S.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 125 miles (200 km) in the northern and eastern quadrants of Isaias.  The winds in the southern and western parts of the circulation were mostly at less than tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Isaias will move through an environment somewhat favorable for intensification during the next 12 hours.  Isaias will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  An upper level trough over the Central U.S. will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of Isaias.  Those winds will cause moderate vertical wind shear which will inhibit intensification.  The wind shear is expected to decrease slightly later on Monday, which could allow Isaias to strengthen into a hurricane.

The upper level trough will steer Tropical Storm Isaias toward the north-northeast during the next several days.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Isaias will make landfall near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina on Monday night.  Isaias could be a hurricane when it makes landfall.  Isaias will bring gusty winds and a storm surge of 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 meters) to the coast near and to the east of where the center makes landfall.  The center of Isaias will move across eastern North Carolina and it could be near Norfolk, Virginia on Tuesday morning.  Tropical Storm Isaias could pass near New York City later on Tuesday.

Tropical Storm Isaias will bring gusty winds to the East Coast of the U.S. from South Carolina to Maine.  Isaias will also drop locally heavy rain from eastern South Carolina to New England.  The National Weather Service has indicated that a Moderate Risk of flash floods exists for the region from eastern South Carolina to eastern Pennsylvania.

Tropical Storm Isaias Slightly Stronger, Hurricane Watch Issued for Carolinas

Tropical Storm Isaias strengthened slightly on Sunday afternoon and a hurricane Watch was issued for a portion of the Carolinas’ coast.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Isaias was located at latitude 27.8°N and longitude 79.8°W which put it about 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral, Florida.  Isaias was moving toward the north-northwest at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 994 mb.

A Hurricane Watch was issued for the portion of the coast from South Santee River, South Carolina to Surf City, North Carolina.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Sebastian Inlet, Florida to Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina.  A Tropical Storm Watch was issued for the portion of the coast from Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina to Watch Hill, Rhode Island including Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Long Island and Long Island Sound.

Tropical Storm Isaias strengthened a little on Sunday afternoon, but the middle level center of circulation was displaced to the northeast of the surface center.  An upper level trough over the central U.S. extended to the Gulf of Mexico and it was producing westerly winds which were blowing toward the top of Isaias.  Those winds were causing moderate vertical wind shear and they were also causing the displacement of the middle level center of Tropical Storm Isaias.  Thunderstorms continued to develop around the middle level center of circulation.  Those storms generated upper level divergence which pumped mass away to the east of the tropical storm.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out 115 miles (185 km) on the eastern side of Isaias.  Tropical Storm force winds only extended out 65 miles (105 km) on the western side of the circulation.

Tropical Storm Isaias will move through an environment somewhat favorable for intensification during the next 24 hours.  Isaias will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  The direction of the upper level winds will shift to the southwest as the upper level trough approaches Tropical Storm Isaias.  That will cause the vertical wind shear to decrease.  Tropical Storm Isaias could strengthen into a hurricane, if the shear decreases.

Tropical Storm Isaias will move around the western end of a subtropical high pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean.  The high will steer Isaias toward the north during the next 12 hours.  The upper level trough will steer Tropical Storm Isaias toward the northeast on Monday.  On its anticipated track Isaias will approach the coast of the Carolinas near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina on Monday night.  Isaias could be a hurricane when it makes landfall.  It will bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain to extreme eastern South Carolina, eastern North Carolina and coastal Virginia.  Isaias will cause a storm surge of 3  to 6 feet (1 to 2 meters) near and to the east of where the center makes landfall.  Tropical Storm Isaias will continue to move up the East Coast toward New England.

Tropical Storm Fay Forms East of Cape Hatteras

Tropical Storm Fay formed east of Cape Hatteras on Thursday afternoon.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Fay was located at latitude 35.5°N and longitude 74.9°W which put it about 40 miles (65 km) east-northeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.  Fay was moving toward the north at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1005 mb.

A Tropical Storm Warning was issued for the portion of the coast from Cape May, New Jersey to Watch Hill, Rhode Island including Long Island and Long Island Sound.

A new center of circulation formed near the northern end of a band of showers and thunderstorms which was on the eastern side of a larger low pressure system that was previously designated as Invest 98L.  A reconnaissance aircraft detected winds to tropical storm force and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Storm Fay.  Fay is the sixth named Atlantic tropical storm of 2020 and it formed earlier than any other sixth Atlantic tropical storm in the satellite era.

The circulation around Tropical Storm Fay was asymmetrical.  The strongest winds were occurring a band of showers and thunderstorms on the eastern side of Fay.  The inner end of the band was wrapping around the northern side of the center of circulation.  Bands on the western side of the tropical storm consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  Storms near the center began to generate upper level divergence which was pumping mass away to the north and east of the tropical storm.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 140 miles (225 km) in the eastern half of Tropical Storm Fay.  The winds in the western half of Fay were blowing at less than tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Fay will move through an environment somewhat favorable for intensification during the next 18 to 24 hours.  Fay will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 26°C.  An upper level trough over the eastern U.S. will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of the tropical storm.  Those winds will impede upper level divergence to the west of Tropical Storm Fay and they will cause moderate vertical wind shear.  The wind shear will inhibit intensification, but it will not likely to be strong enough to prevent Fay from strengthening.  Tropical Storm Fay could intensify during the next 12 to 18 hours.

The upper level trough and a high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean will interact to steer Tropical Storm Fay toward the north during the next day or two.  On its anticipated track the center of Tropical Storm Fay could approach southern New Jersey on Friday afternoon.  Fay could move across Long Island on Friday night.

Since the strongest rainband and winds are on the eastern side of Tropical Storm Fay, the portion of the coast south of New Jersey may not experience tropical storm force winds.  Gusty winds are likely along the coast of New Jersey, Long Island, southeastern New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island.  Heavy rain could also fall in those locations.  Easterly winds blowing around the northern side of Tropical Storm Fay will push water toward the coast.  The water level could rise several feet (one meter) at some locations.  Waves could also cause some beach erosion.

Potential Tropical Development Near East Coast of U.S.

There is the potential for the development of a tropical cyclone near the East Coast of the U.S. during the next several days.  A low pressure system, currently designated as Invest 98L developed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the weekend.  The low moved slowly toward the northeast across the southeastern U.S.  At 2:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the low level center of Invest 98L was located at latitude 33.3°N and longitude 80.5°W which put it about 25 miles (40 km) west of Charleston, South Carolina.  The low was moving toward the east at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 25 m.p.h. (40 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1013 mb.

Invest 98L currently consists primarily of a lower level circulation.  Much of the circulation is over land and the center is west of Charleston, South Carolina.  Many of the bands revolving around the center of the low pressure system consist of showers and lower clouds.  There are bands of showers and thunderstorms on the far eastern edge of the circulation which is over the Gulf Stream.  An upper level trough over the southeastern U.S. is producing westerly winds which are blowing across the top of the low level circulation.

Invest 98L will move into an environment more favorable for the development of a tropical cyclone.  It will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 27°C when the center moves over the Atlantic Ocean.  The upper level trough will over the southeastern U.S. will cause moderate vertical wind shear.  The wind shear will inhibit development.  If thunderstorms develop closer to the center of circulation, those storms could cause the circulation grow vertically into the middle and upper troposphere.  If the thunderstorms release enough latent energy in the middle and upper troposphere, a warm core could form and Invest 98L could become a tropical cyclone.

The National Hurricane Center indicated in the 8:00 a.m. EDT Tropical Weather Outlook on Wednesday that the probability was 70% that a tropical or subtropical cyclone could form during the next five days.  An upper level trough approaching the eastern U.S. will steer the low pressure system toward the north-northeast during the next few days.  On its anticipated track the low pressure system will move near the East Coast of the U.S.  A reconnaissance aircraft is tentatively scheduled to investigate Invest 98L later on Wednesday, if necessary.

Tropical Storm Bertha Brings Wind and Rain to the Carolinas

Tropical Storm Bertha brought wind and rain to the Carolinas on Wednesday.  Bertha weakened to a tropical depression after it moved inland on Wednesday afternoon.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Bertha was located at latitude 36.0°N and longitude 80.5°W which put it about 40 miles (65 km) west of Greensboro, North Carolina.  Bertha was moving toward the north at 23 m.p.h. (37 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h.  (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1009 mb.

Flash Flood Watches were in effect for northeast South Carolina, southern and west central North Carolina, southwest Virginia and southwest West Virginia.

Tropical Storm Bertha developed rapidly on Wednesday morning and it was still strengthening when it made landfall on the coast of South Carolina.  The center of Bertha officially made landfall east of Charleston near Mount Pleasant around midday on Wednesday.  NOAA buoy 41004 which is located southeast of Charleston measured a sustained wind speed of 40 m.p.h (65 km/h) and a gust of 58 m.p.h. (94 km/h).  NOAA buoy 41029 (Capers Nearshore) measured a surface pressure of 1005.8 mb when the center of Bertha passed near it.

A weather station at Shaw Air Force Base measured 2.00 inches (51 mm)  of rain.  A weather station in downtown Charleston, South Carolina measured 1.61 inches (41 mm).  Charlotte, North Carolina received 1.64 inches (42 mm), Greensboro received 1.09 inches (28 mm) and Winston Salem received 1.04 inches (26 mm).

Tropical Depression Bertha will move around the western end of a surface high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean.  The high will steer Bertha toward the north on Thursday.  On its anticipated track Tropical Depression Bertha will move across western Virginia, West Virginia, eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania.  Bertha will drop rain over those areas on Thursday.  Locally heavy rain could cause flooding in some locations.

Hurricane Dorian Brings Wind and Rain to the Carolinas

Hurricane Dorian brought wind and rain to the Carolinas on Thursday while the center move just off the coast.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Hurricane Dorian was located at latitude 33.6°N and longitude 77.4°W which put it about 70 miles southwest of Cape Lookout, North Carolina.  Dorian was moving toward the northeast at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 120 m.p.h. (195 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 958 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Edisto Beach, South Carolina to the North Carolina/Virginia border including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds. Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portion of the coast from the North Carolina/Virginia border to Fenwick Island, Delaware, for Chesapeake Bay south of Drum Point and for the Tidal Potomac south of Cobb Island. A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Woods Hole to Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts including Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket. A Hurricane Watch has been issued for all of Nova Scotia. Tropical Storm Watches have been issued for Prince Edward Island, for the Magdalen Islands and for New Brunswick from Fundy National Park to Shediac. A Tropical Storm Watch was issued for Newfoundland from Francois to Boat Harbor.

Hurricane Dorian weakened very slowly on Thursday while the center of circulation moved just off the coast.  The pressure remained nearly steady around 958 mb.  A circular eye with a diameter of 35 miles (55 km) was at the center of circulation.  A ring of thunderstorms surrounded the eye and the strongest winds were in that ring of storms.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of Hurricane Dorian.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 220 miles (330 km) from the center.

The core of Hurricane Dorian with the strongest winds remained over the Atlantic Ocean.  Numerous location along the coast of South Carolina and North Carolina reported winds to topical storm force.  Rainbands rotating around the northern half of Dorian dropped locally heavy rain over coastal areas of South Carolina and North Carolina.  Thunderstorms in some of the bands generated tornadoes and there were scattered reports of wind damage.  Hurricane Dorian caused a storm surge of 4 to 7 feet (1.3 to 2.3 meters) along the coast.

An upper level trough over the eastern U.S. began to steer Hurricane Dorian toward the northeast.  Dorian began to move faster later on Thursday.  The upper level trough will steer Hurricane Dorian rapidly toward the northeast during the next few days.  On its anticipated track Dorian will bring wind and rain to eastern North Carolina on Friday.  Dorian will also cause a storm surge along the coast.  Hurricane Dorian will pass southeast of New England on Friday night.  Dorian will bring wind and rain to the Canadian Maritime provinces and Newfoundland during the weekend.

Major Hurricane Dorian Moves Toward the Carolinas

Major Hurricane Dorian moved toward the Carolinas on Wednesday night.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Dorian was located at latitude 31.3°N and longitude 79.6°W which put it about 105 miles (170 km) south of Charleston, South Carolina.  Dorian was moving toward the north at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 115 m.p.h. (195 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 140 m.p.h. (220 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 955 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Savannah River, Georgia to the North Carolina/Virginia border including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.  A Hurricane Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from the mouth of the St. Mary’s River, Florida to Savannah River, Georgia.  Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from the mouth of the St. Mary’s River to Savannah River, Georgia and from the North Carolina/Virginia border to Chincoteague, Virginia.  A Tropical Storm Warning was also in effect for Chesapeak Bay south of Smith Point.  Tropical Storm Watches were in effect for the portion of the coast from Chincoteague, Virginia to Fenwick Island, Delaware, for Chesapeake Bay from Smith Point to Drum Point and for the Tidal Potomac south of Cobb Island.

Hurricane Dorian strengthened back into a major hurricane on Wednesday night as it moved over the warm water in the Gulf Stream.  A large eye with a diameter of 45 miles (75 km) became more circular and symmetrical.  The ring of thunderstorms surrounding the eye became continuous and a little thicker.  The strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms.  Other bands of showers and thunderstorms revolving around the core of Hurricane Dorian also got stronger.  Storms around the core of Dorian generated upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the hurricane and the surface pressure decreased.

The circulation around Hurricane Dorian increased in size on Wednesday.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 60 miles (95 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 200 miles (320 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Hurricane Dorian was 20.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) was 22.6 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) was 43.2.  Hurricane Dorian was capable of causing widespread major damage.

Hurricane Dorian will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 12 hours.  Dorian will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there is little vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Dorian could get a little stronger during the night.  An upper level trough over the central U.S. will move toward Hurricane Dorian on Thursday.  The upper level trough will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of the hurricane.  Those winds will cause the vertical wind shear to increase, which will cause Dorian to start to weaken.

Hurricane Dorian will move around the western end of a subtropical ridge over the western Atlantic Ocean.  The ridge will steer Dorian toward the north on Wednesday night.  The upper level trough will turn Hurricane Dorian toward the northeast on Thursday.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Dorian could approach the coast of South Carolina on Thursday morning.  Dorian will move along the coast of North Carolina on Thursday afternoon and Thursday night.

Even if the center of Hurricane Dorian stays just south of the coast of South Carolina and North Carolina, the large circulation means that locations near the coast are likely to get hurricane force winds.  Winds blowing water toward the coast could cause storm surges of 5 to 8 feet (1.5 to 2.5 meters) in some locations.  Dorian could also drop locally heavy rain and cause flash flooding  near the coast.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Fernand made landfall north of La Pesca, Mexico on Wednesday and Tropical Storm Gabrielle developed south of the Azores.  Ar 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Fernand was located at latitude 25.0°N and longitude 99.0°W which put it about 100 miles (160 km) west-northwest of La Pesca, Mexico.  Dorian was moving toward the west-northwest at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.

At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Gabrielle was located at latitude 21.5°N and longitude 34.4°W which put it about 1220 miles (1965 km) south-southwest of the Azores.  Gabrielle was moving toward the northwest at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 m/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1002 mb.