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Hurricane Olivia Churns Toward Hawaii

Hurricane Olivia churned toward Hawaii on Saturday.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Hurricane Olivia was located at latitude 21.4°N and longitude 138.0°W which put it about 1110 miles (1790 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii.  Olivia was moving toward the west at 15 m.p.h. (24 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 983 mb.

Hurricane Olivia weakened slowly on Saturday, but it still had a well organized circulation.  There was a circular eye at the center of circulation.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Hurricane Olivia.  The rainbands in the eastern half of the circulation were stronger than the bands in the western half of the circulation.  Storms near the core of Olivia were generating upper level divergence.

Hurricane Olivia will move through an environment that could allow it to remain a hurricane for several more days.  Olivia is currently over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 25°C, but it will move over slightly warmer water during the next several days.  An upper level trough north of Hawaii will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds will cause moderate vertical wind shear and they could cause Hurricane Olivia to weaken to a tropical storm early next week.

Hurricane Olivia will move south of a subtropical high over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.  The high will steer Olivia toward the west during the next day or two.  The ridge is forecast to strengthen early next week and it will steer Olivia more toward the west-southwest.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Olivia could approach Hawaii on Tuesday night.

Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Norman moved north of Hawaii and weakened, while Tropical Depression Eighteen-E developed southwest of Baja California.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Storm Norman was located at latitude 26.0°N and longitude 154.4°W which put it about 395 miles (630 km) northeast of Honolulu, Hawaii. Norman was moving toward the northwest at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb.

At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Saturday the center of Tropical Depression Eighteen-E was located at latitude 16.1°N and longitude 115.9°W which put it about 610 miles (980 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  It was moving toward the west-northwest at 12 m.p.h. (19 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

Hurricanes Norma and Olivia Continue Westward

Hurricanes Norman and Olivia continued to move westward across the Pacific Ocean on Wednesday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Norman was located at latitude 19.9°N and 148.4°W which put it about 435 miles (700 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii. Norman was moving toward the west at 8 m.p.h.   The maximum sustained wind speed was 115 m.p.h. (185 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 135 m.p.h. (220 km/h).  The Minimum surface pressure was 962 mb.

At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Olivia was located at latitude 17.3°N and longitude 123.5°W which put it about 960 miles (1550 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Olivia was moving toward the west-northwest at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 120 m.p.h. (195 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 974 mb.

Although Hurricane Norman was in seemingly a less favorable environment, it intensified on Wednesday while Hurricane Olivia weakened.  The eye of Hurricane Norman became more distinct and it strengthened back to major hurricane status.  Hurricane Olivia weakened to Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale.  Both hurricanes were similar in size.  Winds to hurricane force extended out about 30 miles (50 km) from the center of Hurricane Norman and about 25 miles (40 km) from the center of Hurricane Olivia.  Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 115 miles (185 km) from the centers of both Hurricane Norman and Hurricane Olivia.

Both hurricanes are forecast to weaken gradually during the next several days.  Hurricane Norman will move over water cooler than 26.5°C.  An upper level trough will produce westerly winds which will blow toward the top of the circulation and cause more vertical wind shear.  The combination of cooler water and more shear will cause Hurricane Norman to weaken. Hurricane Olivia is currently over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C, but it too will move over cooler water.  An upper level ridge north of Olivia will produce northwesterly winds which will cause more vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Olivia is also forecast to weaken during the next several days.

The upper level trough is forecast to turn Hurricane Norman toward the northwest on Thursday.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Norman will pass north of the Hawaiian Islands.  The ridge north of Hurricane Olivia is forecast to steer Olivia in a general westerly direction for another four or five days.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Olivia could be east of Hawaii by the end of the weekend.

Tropical Storm Olivia Forms South of Baja California

Tropical Storm Olivia formed south of Baja California on Sunday morning.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Olivia was located at latitude 17.0°N and longitude 112.4°W which put it about 440 miles (705 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Olivia was moving toward the northwest at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1002 mb.

The circulation of Tropical Storm Olivia was not well organized.  Most of the stronger thunderstorms were occurring in bands southwest of the center of circulation.  The bands in the other parts of the tropical storm consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.  Olivia was located southeast of an upper level ridge.  The ridge was producing northeasterly winds which were blowing across the top of the circulation.  Those winds were causing vertical wind shear and they were probably the reason why the stronger thunderstorms were confined to the southwestern part of Tropical Storm Olivia.

Tropical Storm Olivia will move into an environment that is more favorable for intensification.  Olivia will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move away from the northeasterly winds in the upper levels and the vertical wind shear is likely to decrease.  Intensification will occur slowly until the circulation becomes more well organized.  Once more thunderstorms form in other parts of the circulation, Tropical Storm Olivia could strengthen more quickly.

Tropical Storm Olivia will move south of a ridge of high pressure over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Olivia in a westerly direction during the next several days.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Olivia will move away from Baja California.

Elsewhere over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean, Hurricane Norman strengthened back to Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Hurricane Norman was located at latitude 17.6°N and longitude 129.1°W which put it about 1295 miles (2085 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Norman was moving toward the west-northwest at 18 m.p.h. (30 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 130 m.p.h. (215 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 160 m.p.h. (260 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 949 mb.  Norman could be northeast of Hawaii in four or five days.

Hurricane Norman Rapidly Intensifies to Cat. 4

Hurricane Norman rapidly intensified to Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale on Thursday.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Hurricane Norman was located at latitude 17.5°N and longitude 118.8°W which put it about 685 miles (1105 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Norman was moving toward the west at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 150 m.p.h. (240 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 175 m.p.h. (285 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 937 mb.

The circulation Hurricane Norman is very symmetrical.  There is a small eye at the center of circulation and the eye is surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms.  The strongest winds are occurring in that ring of storms.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Hurricane Storm.  Storms near the core were generating strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the hurricane in all directions.

Hurricane Norman has a small circulation.  Winds to hurricane force extend out about 25 miles (40 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force only extend out about 80 miles (130 km) from the center.  The Hurricane Intensity Index (HII) for Norman is 31.6.  The Hurricane Size Index (HSI) is 8.6 and the Hurricane Wind Intensity Size Index (HWISI) is 40.2.  Hurricane Norman is a small, but powerful hurricane.

Hurricane Norman will remain in a very favorable environment for another day or so.  Norman will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C.  It will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Norman could strengthen a little more during the next 24 hours unless an eyewall replacement cycle begins.  Norman is likely to move over slightly cooler water during the weekend and there may not be enough energy to maintain such a powerful hurricane.

Hurricane Norman will move south of a subtropical ridge over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.  The ridge will steer Norman a little to the south of a due westerly course.  On its anticipated track Hurricane Norman will move toward the Central Pacific.

Elsewhere over the Central Pacific Ocean, Hurricane Miriam turned toward the north-northwest.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Hurricane Miriam was located at latitude 15.7°N and longitude 141.6°W which put it about 930 miles (1495 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii.  Miriam was moving toward the north-northwest at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 982 mb.

Miriam and Norman Become Hurricanes

Both former Tropical Storm Miriam and Tropical Storm Norman strengthened into hurricanes over the Eastern North Pacific on Wednesday afternoon.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Miriam was located at latitude 14.0°N and longitude 139.7°W which put it about 1090 miles east of Hilo, Hawaii.  Miriam was moving toward the west at 9 m.p.h.  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 992 mb.

At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Norman was located at latitude 17.6°N and longitude 116.9°W which put it about 545 miles (875 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Norman was moving toward the west at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts t0 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 987 mb.

An inner rainband wrapped much of the way around the center of circulation and an eye developed at the center  of Hurricane Miriam on Wednesday.  Storms near the core of Miriam generated strong upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the hurricane.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of the circulation.  The strongest rainbands were south and east of the center of Hurricane Miriam.  Rainbands on the northwest side of the circulation contained more showers and low clouds.

An inner rainband also wrapped most of the way around the center of Hurricane Norman on Wednesday and an eye appeared to be forming at the center of circulation.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the core of Norman.  The distribution of thunderstorms in Norman was more symmetrical.  Storms around the core of Hurricane Norman were generating well developed upper level divergence.

Both Hurricane Miriam and Hurricane Norman were moving south of a subtropical ridge over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.  Miriam could reach the end of the ridge in the next day or two and turn toward the north.  The ridge is forecast to steer Hurricane Norman westward during the next two or three days.

Hurricane Miriam will approach an upper level trough east of Hawaii.  The trough will produce southwesterly winds which will increase vertical wind shear.  The shear is forecast to cause Miriam to weaken.  Hurricane Norman will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 28°C.  Norman will move through a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Norman is forecast to intensify into a major hurricane.

Tropical Storm Norman Forms Southwest of Baja California

Tropical Storm Norman formed southwest of Baja California on Wednesday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Norman was located at latitude 17.5°N and longitude 113.9°W which put it about 455 miles (730 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Norman was moving toward west-northwest at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.

The circulation of Tropical Storm Norman organized quickly on Wednesday.  A distinct low level center of circulation developed in an area of thunderstorms southwest of Baja California and the National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Storm Norman.  A primary rainband wrapped part of the way around the center of circulation.  Several other bands of showers and thunderstorms formed and began to revolve around the core of Norman.  Storms near the core started to generate strong upper level divergence which was pumping mass away from the tropical storm in all directions.

Tropical Storm Norman will be moving through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  Norman will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will move through an area where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Norman could intensify to a hurricane in the next 24 hours.  Once an eye forms and the inner core is full organized, Norman could intensify rapidly.  It could strengthen into a major hurricane later this week.

Tropical Storm Norman will move south of a subtropical ridge over the Eastern North Pacific during the next few days.  The ridge will steer Norman in a general westerly direction.  On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Norman will move toward the Central Pacific.

Elsewhere over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean, Tropical Storm Miriam continued to move westward.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Miriam was located at latitude 14.1°N and longitude 137.4°W which put it about 1230 miles (1980 km) east of HIlo, Hawaii.  Miriam was moving toward the west at 13 m.p.h. (20 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb.

Max Rapidly Intensifies Into a Hurricane Near Acapulco

Tropical Storm Max intensified rapidly into a hurricane on Thursday morning.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Hurricane Max was located at latitude 16.3°N and longitude 99.9°W which put it about 40 miles (65 km/h) south of Acapulco, Mexico.  Max was moving toward the east at 7 m.p.h. (11 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 95 m.p.h. (155 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 988 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Zihuatenajo to Punta Maldonado, Mexico.  A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Punta Maldonado to Laguas de Chacahua, Mexico.

The circulation of Hurriane Max is quite small.  Winds to hurricane force only extend out about 15 miles (25 km) from the center of circulation.  Winds to tropical storm force extend out about 50 miles (80 km) from the center.  Although the circulation of Hurricane Max is small, it is very well organized.  There is a small circular eye at the center of circulation.  The eye is surrounded by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds are occurring in that ring of storms.

The center of Hurricane Max is very close to the coast of Mexico.  The outer fringes of the northwestern part of the circulation could already be pulling in some drier air.  Max will make landfall on the coast of Mexico within a few hours and it will start to dissipate as soon as the center make landfall.

The core of Hurricane Max will be capable of causing localized wind damage.  Max will also drop very heavy rain over parts of the states or Guerrero and Oaxaca and flash floods could occur in some areas of steeper terrain.

Elsewhere over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean, Tropical Storm Norma formed to the west of Hurricane Max.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Norma was located at latitude 17.2°N and longitude 109.5°W which put it about 395 miles (635 km) south of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.  Norma was moving toward the north at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1004 mb.  Tropical Storm Norma is forecast to strengthen and move toward Baja California.  Normal could be a hurricane when it approaches southern Baja California in a few days.

Tropical Depression 16E Forms, Flood Risk for Mexico

Tropical Depression Sixteen-E formed south of Mexico on Wednesday morning.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Sixteen-E was located at latitude 16.2°N and longitude 101.7°W which put it about 105 miles (165 km) south of Zihuatanejo, Mexico.  It was moving toward the north-northeast at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was  35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

A Tropical Storm Watch was issued for the portion of the coast from Zihuatanejo to Punta Maldonado, Mexico.

A distinct center of circulation formed in a cluster of thunderstorms south of Mexico and that National Hurricane Center designated the system as Tropical Depression Sixteen-E on Wednesday morning.  The circulation of the depression was still organizing.  Several bands of showers and thunderstorms were developing south and east of the center of circulation.  There were fewer showers and thunderstorms in the northwestern quadrant of the circulation and the depression may have been pulling in drier air from Mexico.

The depression has 12 to 18 hours to strengthen before it makes landfall on the coast of Mexico.  It will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 30°C.  An upper level trough extends from the eastern U.S. to Mexico.  The trough is producing westerly winds which are blowing toward the top of the circulation.  Those winds are generating moderate wind vertical shear, which will inhibit intensification.  Tropical Depression Sixteen-E could strengthen into a tropical storm before it reaches the coast of Mexico.

The upper level trough is forecast to steer Tropical Depression Sixteen-E toward the east.  On its anticipated track the depression could make landfall east of Zihuatanejo in less than 24 hours.  The depression will bring gusty winds, but heavy rain poses a greater threat.  Heavy rain falling in steeper terrain could cause flash floods.

Elsewhere over the Eastern North Pacific Ocean, Tropical Depression Fifteen-E was moving farther away from Mexico.  Tropical Depression Fifteen-E formed when momentum from the upper half of the circulation of former Hurricane Katia spun up a new surface circulation over the Eastern North Pacific.  At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Fifteen-E was located at latitude 14.9°N and longitude 120.6°W which put it about 890 miles (1435 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  It was moving toward the west at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1004 mb.

Tropical Storm Orlene Develops Rapidly West of Mexico

Tropical Storm Orlene developed rapidly southwest of Baja California on Sunday.  At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Orlene was located at latitude 16.6°N and longitude 118.3°W which put it about 700 miles (1125 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.  Orlene was moving toward the northwest at 9 m.p.h.  The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1001 mb.

Tropical Storm Orlene organized quickly on Sunday.  A primary rainband wrapped around the center of circulation and an eye appears to be forming.  Additional spiral bands are rotating around the core of Orlene.  Thunderstorms in the core of Tropical Storm Orlene are generating upper level divergence which is pumping out mass in all directions.  The circulation of Orlene is symmetrical and well formed.

Tropical Storm Orlene is moving through a very favorable environment.  It is moving over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  The upper level winds are weak and there is little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Orlene will continue to intensify on Monday and it could intensify rapidly for another 24 hours.

Tropical Storm Orlene is moving northwest toward a weakness in the subtropical high and that general motion is expected to continue for another day or two.  Eventually, the subtropical ridge is expected to strengthen and turn Tropical Storm Orlene toward the west.

Tropical Depression 16E Could Bring Heavy Rain to Southwest U.S.

A center of circulation organized within a cluster of thunderstorms west of Baja California on Sunday and the system was designated Tropical Depression Sixteen-E.  At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Depression Sixteen-E (TD16E) was located at latitude 25.0°N and longitude 113.7°W which put it about 90 miles (145 km) west of Cabo San Lazaro, Mexico.  TD16E was moving toward the north-northwest at 14 m.p.h. (22 km/h).  The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (70 km/h).  The minimum surface pressure was 1003 mb.

Tropical Depression 16E has only a few hours before it will move over the central part of Baja California.  Although it is over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 27°C little, if any, intensification is expected.  When TD16E crosses Baja California, the terrain and increased vertical wind shear are likely to blow the upper portion of the circulation northward faster than the lower portion of the circulation.  The high clouds could reach parts of the southwestern U.S. within 24 hours.  Moving over mountains will disrupt the lower part of the circulation, but the rotation in the middle levels could persist for several days as it moves northward.

An upper level ridge centered over Texas and an upper level low west of Baja California are combining to steer TD16E northward and that general motion should continue for the next several days.  On its anticipated track TD16E could reach the coast of Baja California near Punta Abreojos in about 12 hours.  It could then move across Baja and the Gulf of California and make a second landfall on the coast west of Hermosillo on Monday morning.  TD16E or its remnants could be approaching southern Arizona later on Monday.  Convection and a flow of moisture associated with TD16E could produce locally heavy rainfall when it is forced to rise of mountains.  It could cause flooding in parts of Baja California, northwestern Mexico and the southwestern U.S.