Tag Archives: Yucatan

Tropical Storm Watches Issued for South Florida and Western Cuba

The National Hurricane Center issued Tropical Storm Watches for South Florida and all of the Florida Keys on Thursday afternoon. The government of Cuba also issued Tropical Storm Watches for western Cuba. The National Hurricane Center designated former Invest 91L as Potential Tropical Cyclone One on Thursday afternoon. At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Potential Tropical Cyclone One was located at latitude 21.4°N and longitude 87.5°W which put it about 75 miles (120 km) north-northwest of Cozumel, Mexico. Potential Tropical Cyclone One was moving toward the north at 5 m.p.h. (8 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1003 mb.

A Tropical Storm Watch was issued for the coast of Florida from Longboat Key on the west coast to the Volusia/Brevard County Line on the east coast. A Tropical Storm Watch was also issued for all of the Florida Keys. The government of Cuba issued Tropical Storm Watches for the provinces of Matanzas, Mayabeque, La Habana, Artemisa, Pinar del Rio and the Isle of Youth.

The National Hurricane Center designated former Invest 91L as Potential Tropical Cyclone One in keeping with its policy on the issuance of watches and warnings. The circulation around Potential Tropical Cyclone One consisted of a broad area of low pressure. One or more smaller centers of circulation were revolving around inside the broad area of low pressure. The National Hurricane Center identified a center near the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula as the center of Potential Tropical Cyclone One. Images from satellites and radar indicated that a middle level center of circulation might be located near the western end of Cuba. The strongest thunderstorms were occurring in bands in the eastern side of Potential Tropical Cyclone One. Those thunderstorms were generating upper level divergence that pumped mass away to the east of the low pressure system. Bands in the western half of the circulation were over the Yucatan Peninsula and those bands consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.

Potential Tropical Cyclone One will move through an environment that will be somewhat favorable for intensification during the next 36 hours. Potential Tropical Cyclone One will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 28˚C. An upper level trough over the western Gulf of Mexico and an upper level ridge over the Northwest Caribbean Sea will interact to produce southwesterly winds that will blow toward the top of Potential Tropical Cyclone One. Those winds will cause moderate vertical wind shear. The vertical shear will somewhat inhibit intensification. However, the upper level ridge will also enhance the upper level divergence over Potential Tropical Cyclone One. More upper level divergence would cause the surface pressure to decrease. Potential Tropical Cyclone One is forecast to strengthen to a tropical storm during the next 36 hours.

The upper level trough over the western Gulf of Mexico and the upper level ridge over the Northwest Caribbean Sea will steer Potential Tropical Cyclone One toward the northeast during the next several days. On its anticipated track, Potential Tropical Cyclone One will approach Southwest Florida on Saturday morning. Potential Tropical Cyclone One will bring gusty winds and heavy rain to western Cuba and South Florida later this week. Heavy rain is likely to cause flash floods in some locations.

Disturbance Organizes over Northwest Caribbean Sea

A tropical disturbance, designated as Invest 91L, organized over the Northwest Caribbean Sea on Wednesday. At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Invest 91L was located at latitude 18.7°N and longitude 87.4°W which put it about 75 miles (120 km) east of Chetumal, Mexico. Invest 91L was moving toward the northeast at 3 m.p.h. (5 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

A center of circulation appeared to be spinning over the Northwest Caribbean Sea just to the east of the Yucatan Peninsula on visible satellite loops on Wednesday morning. The circulation center was designated as Invest 91L. The center was inside a larger tropical disturbance over the Northwest Caribbean Sea and Yucatan Peninsula. The strongest thunderstorms were occurring in bands in the eastern half of Invest 91L. Bands in the western half of the system were over the Yucatan Peninsula and those bands consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds. Storms in the eastern half of Invest 91L generated upper level divergence that pumped mass away to the east of the tropical disturbance.

Invest 91L will move through an environment that will be favorable for the formation of a tropical depression during the next 36 hours. Invest 91L will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 28˚C. An upper level trough over the western Gulf of Mexico and an upper level ridge over the Northwest Caribbean Sea will interact to produce southwesterly winds that will blow toward the top of Invest 91L. Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear. The vertical shear will somewhat inhibit the formation of a tropical depression. However, the upper level ridge will also enhance the upper level divergence over Invest 91L. More upper level divergence would cause the surface pressure to decrease. The National Hurricane Center is indicating the probability is 80% that a tropical depression forms from Invest 91L. A reconnaissance plane is tentatively scheduled to investigate the system on Thursday, if necessary.

The upper level trough over the western Gulf of Mexico and the upper level ridge over the Northwest Caribbean Sea will steer Invest 91L slowly toward the northeast during the next several days. On its anticipated track, Invest 91L will move toward western Cuba and South Florida. Invest 91L could bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain to western Cuba and South Florida later this week.

Tropical Depression Agatha Drops Heavy Rain on Southern Mexico

Former Hurricane Agatha dropped heavy rain on southern Mexico on Tuesday. Agatha weakened to a tropical depression on Tuesday morning as it moved farther inland over southern Mexico. At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Depression Agatha was located at latitude 17.0°N and longitude 95.3°W which put it about 55 miles (90 km) north of Salina Cruz, Mexico. Agatha was moving toward the northeast at 8 m.p.h. (13 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h) and and there were wind gusts to 45 m.p.h. (75 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1004 mb.

Tropical Depression Agatha dropped heavy rain on parts of Oaxaca, Chiapas, Veracruz and Tabasco on Tuesday morning. The lower levels of the circulation of former Hurricane Agatha weakened steadily on Tuesday as it moved farther inland over south Mexico. However, the circulation in the middle and upper levels of Agatha remained well organized. Microwave satellite images showed a well defined center of circulation in the middle levels. Bands of strong thunderstorms were present in the eastern half of Tropical Depression Agatha. Those bands were dropping locally heavy rain over parts of southern Mexico. Bands in the western half of Agatha’s circulation consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds.

An upper level trough over northern Mexico will steer the middle and upper parts of Tropical Depression Agatha toward the northeast during the next 36 hours. Bands in the eastern half of Agatha will continue to drop locally heavy rain over southern Mexico, the Yuacatan Peninsula and parts of Honduras. The heavy rain could cause flash floods in some locations. The middle and upper parts of Tropical Depression Agatha could emerge over the Bay of Campeche or Northwestern Caribbean Sea on Wednesday or Thursday. The remnants of Agatha could contribute to the formation of a tropical cyclone or subtropical cyclone later this week.

Tropical Cyclone Likely to Form over Western Caribbean

A tropical cyclone is likely to form over the western Caribbean Sea during the next few days. At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Invest 99L was located at latitude 12.5°N and longitude 75.4°W which put it about 100 miles (160 km) north of Barranquilla, Colombia. Invest 99L was moving toward the west-northwest at 25 m.p.h. (40 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1006 mb.

A tropical cyclone is likely to form from a tropical wave, currently designated as Invest 99L, that is over the Caribbean Sea north of Colombia. There is currently no low level center of circulation in the tropical wave. Visible satellite images were providing evidence of some rotation in the middle troposphere on Wednesday afternoon. The wave is currently in an environment that is unfavorable for the formation of a tropical cyclone. The wave is over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 29°C. However, an upper level low centered near the Bahamas is producing strong southwesterly winds that are blowing across the western part of the tropical wave. Those winds are causing moderate vertical wind shear and they are inhibiting the development of the wave. Easterly winds in the lower troposphere are pushing lower section of the tropical wave quickly toward the west-northwest, which is also inhibiting development.

The tropical wave will move into an environment more favorable for the development of a tropical cyclone during the next several days. The upper low near the Bahamas is forecast to move toward the northwest and to weaken. When the upper low weakens, the vertical wind shear will decrease around the tropical wave. In addition, the wave is forecast to move more slowly when it reaches the western Caribbean Sea. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is indicating that there is a 50% probability that a tropical depression will form from the tropical wave in the next 48 hours. NHC is indicating there is a 80% probability that a tropical wave will form during the next five days.

The tropical wave will move around the southwestern part of a subtropical high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean. The high will steer the tropical wave toward the west-northwest during the next several days. On its anticipated track the tropical wave will approach Nicaragua and Honduras on Thursday. The system could be near the northeastern part of the Yucatan Peninsula on Friday evening. It could move over the Gulf of Mexico during the weekend. The conditions over the Gulf of Mexico could be favorable for intensification during the weekend. The Sea Surface Temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico are near 30°C. An upper level ridge is forecast to be over the Gulf. The upper level winds will be weak in the ridge and there will be little vertical wind shear. If Invest 99L is in the Gulf of Mexico during the weekend, it could strengthen to a hurricane. If it develops into a hurricane with a well formed inner core, then a period of rapid intensification could occur.

Reconnaissance planes are tentatively scheduled to begin to investigate the tropical wave on Thursday afternoon, if necessary. Invest 99L has the potential to pose a serious threat to the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Interests in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida should monitor progress of the system.

Hurricane Grace Hits Yucatan

Hurricane Grace hit the Yucatan Peninsula on Thursday morning. At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Hurricane Grace was located at latitude 20.1°N and longitude 87.9°W which put it about 45 miles (65 km) south-southeast of Valladolid, Mexico. Grace was moving toward the west at 17 m.p.h. (28 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 989 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Cancun to Punta Herrero, Mexico. The Hurricane Warning included Cozumel. A Hurricane Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from Puerto Veracruz to Cabo Rojo,, Mexico. Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Cancun to Campeche, Mexico and from Punta Herrero to Puerto Costa Maya, Mexico. A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from Cabo Rojo to Puerto de Altamira, Mexico. Tropical Storm Watches were also in effect for the Cuban provinces of Isla de la Juventud and Pinar del Rio.

The center of Hurricane Grace made landfall on the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula southeast of Tulum on Thursday morning. The maximum sustained wind speed was 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h) at the time of landfall. Winds to hurricane force extended out 35 miles (55 km) from the center of Hurricane Grace. Winds to tropical storm force extended out 140 miles (220 km) from the center of circulation. Grace will produce strong gusty winds over the Yucatan. It will also drop heavy rain and flash floods are likely to occur. Hurricane Grace will weaken gradually back to a tropical storm while it moves across the Yucatan.

Hurricane Grace will move over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico on Thursday night. Grace will move into an environment favorable for intensification when it moves over the Gulf of Mexico. Grace will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 30°C. It will move into a region where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear. Grace is likely to intensify back to a hurricane on Friday.

Hurricane Grace will move south of a subtropical high pressure system that extends over the Gulf of Mexico. The high will steer Grace toward the west during the next several days. On its anticipated track Hurricane Grace will move across the Yucatan Peninsula on Thursday. Grace will move over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico on Thursday night. Hurricane Grace could approach the coast of Mexico between Veracruz and Tampico on Friday night.

Elsewhere, former Tropical Storm Fred was dropping heavy rain over parts of the northeastern U.S. and Tropical Storm Henri was moving west toward the east coast of the U.S.

At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of former Tropical Storm Fred was located at latitude 42.0°N and longitude 76.0°W which put it about 15 miles (25 km) south of Binghamton, New York. Fred was moving toward the east-northeast at 17 m.p.h. (28 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 25 m.p.h. (40 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1011 mb. Flood Watches and Flash Flood Watches were in effect for parts of the northeastern U.S.

At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Thursday the center of Tropical Storm Henri was located at latitude 29.5°N and longitude 69.5°W which put it about 525 miles (845 km) southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Henri was moving toward the west at 9 m.p.h. (15 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 995 mb.

Grace Intensifies to a Hurricane

Former Tropical Storm Grace intensified to a hurricane west of the Cayman Islands on Wednesday morning. At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Hurricane Grace was located at latitude 19.4°N and longitude 82.2°W which put it about 65 miles (105km) west of Grand Cayman. Grace was moving toward the west-northwest at 15 m.p.h. (24 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 992 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Cancun to Punta Herrero, Mexico. The Hurricane Warning included Cozumel. A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the Cayman Islands. Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Cancun to Campeche, Mexico and from Punta Herrero to Puerto Costa Maya, Mexico. Tropical Storm Watches were in effect for the Cuban provinces of Isla de la Juventud and Pinar del Rio.

Hurricane Grace was intensifying on Wednesday morning. A reconnaissance plane found that an eye with a diameter of 18 miles (29 km) was forming at the center of Grace. The developing eye was surround by a ring of strong thunderstorms and the strongest winds were occurring in that ring of storms. Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the center of Hurricane Grace. Storms near the core of Grace were generating upper level divergence that was pumping mass away from the hurricane. The removal of mass was causing the surface pressure to decrease. Winds to hurricane force extended out 25 miles (40 km) on the eastern side of Grace. Winds to tropical storm force extended out 115 miles (185 km) from the center of circulation.

Hurricane Grace will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 12 hours. Grace will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 30°C. It will move under the southern side of an upper level ridge centered near Florida. The ridge will produce easterly winds that will blow toward the top of Grace’s circulation. Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear, but the shear will be too small to prevent intensification. Hurricane Grace will continue to intensify during the next 12 hours. A period of rapid intensification could occur once an inner core with an eye and an eyewall is fully formed at the center of Grace.

Hurricane Grace will move south of a subtropical high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean. The high will steer Grace toward the west-northwest during the next several days. On its anticipated track Hurricane Grace will approach the Yucatan Peninsula on Wednesday night. Grace will bring strong winds and locally heavy rain. Flash flooding is likely to occur in some locations. Grace will also cause a storm surge along the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula.

Elsewhere, Tropical Depression Fred was dropping heavy rain over parts of the northeastern U.S. and Tropical Storm Henri was passing southwest of Bermuda.

At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Depression Fred was located at latitude 39.5°N and longitude 80.7°W which put it about 90 miles (145 km) south-southwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Fred was moving toward the northeast at 20 m.p.h. (32 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 25 m.p.h. (40 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 35 m.p.h. (55 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1013 mb. Flood Watches and Flash Flood Watches were in effect for parts of the eastern U.S.

At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Wednesday the center of Tropical Storm Henri was located at latitude 30.0°N and longitude 66.6°W which put it about 190 miles (310 km) southwest of Bermuda. Henri was moving toward the west at 8 m.p.h. (10 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 998 mb

Tropical Storm Grace Brings Wind and Rain to Jamaica

Tropical Storm Grace brought wind and rain to Jamaica on Tuesday. At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Grace was located at latitude 18.5°N and longitude 77.5°W which put it about 25 miles (40 km) east of Montego Bay, Jamaica. Grace was moving toward the west at 15 m.p.h. (24 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1005 mb.

A Hurricane Watch was in effect for the portion of the coast from Cabo Catoche to Punta Allen, Mexico. Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for Jamaica, the Cayman Islands and the Cuban provinces of Santiago de Cuba, Granma, Las Tunas and Camaguey. Tropical Storm Watches were in effect for the Cuban provinces of Ciego de Avila, Sancti Spiritus, Cinefuegos, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio and Isla de la Juventud.

The center of Tropical Storm Grace was moving along the northern coast of Jamaica on Tuesday afternoon. Grace was causing gusty winds over Jamaica and it was also dropping heavy rain. Tropical Storm Grace strengthened earlier on Tuesday as it approached Jamaica. More thunderstorms developed near the center of circulation. Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the center of Grace. Storms near the center generated upper level divergence that pumped mass away from the tropical storm. Winds to tropical storm force extended out 70 miles (110 km) on the eastern side of Grace. The winds in the western half of the circulation were blowing mostly at less than tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Grace will move south of a subtropical high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean. The high will steer Grace toward the west during the next several days. On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Grace will move across Jamaica during the next few hours. Grace could reach the Cayman Islands early on Wednesday. Grace could approach the Yucatan Peninsula on Wednesday night.

Tropical Storm Grace is not likely to strengthen during the next few hours while the center of circulation is near the northern coast of Jamaica. Grace will move through an environment favorable for intensification after it moves west of Jamaica. Grace will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperatures are near 30°C. It will move under the southern side of an upper level ridge centered near Florida. The ridge will produce easterly winds that will blow toward the top of Grace’s circulation. Those winds will cause some vertical wind shear, but the shear will be too small to prevent intensification. Tropical Storm Grace could strengthen to a hurricane over the northwestern Caribbean Sea. A period of rapid intensification could occur if an inner core with an eye and an eyewall forms at the center of Grace.

Elsewhere, Tropical Depression Fred was dropping heavy rain over parts of the southeastern U.S. and Tropical Storm Henri was strengthening south of Bermuda.

At 11:00 a.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Depression Fred was located at latitude 33.4°N and longitude 84.7°W which put it about 30 miles (50 km) south-southwest of Atlanta, Georgia. Fred was moving toward the north-northeast at 17 m.p.h. (28 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 30 m.p.h. (50 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1007 mb.

At 2:00 p.m. EDT on Tuesday the center of Tropical Storm Henri was located at latitude 30.4°N and longitude 64.3°W which put it about 143 miles (215 km) south-southeast of Bermuda. Henri was moving toward the west-southwest at 6 m.p.h. (10 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 65 m.p.h. (105 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1000 mb. A Tropical Storm Watch was in effect for Bermuda.

Zeta Intensifies to a Hurricane, Watches Issued for Gulf Coast

Former Tropical Storm Zeta intensified into a hurricane over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on Monday. At 5:00 p.m. EDT on Monday the center of Hurricane Zeta was located at latitude 19.5°N and longitude 86.0°W which put it about 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Cozumel, Mexico. Zeta was moving toward the northwest at 10 m.p.h. (16 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 80 m.p.h. (130 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 100 m.p.h. (160 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 981 mb.

A Hurricane Warning was in effect for the portion of the coast from Tulum to Dzilam, Mexico and the warning included Cancun and Cozumel. A Hurricane Watch was issued for the portion of the coast from Morgan City, Louisiana to the Mississippi/Alabama border. The Hurricane Watch included New Orleans, Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Maurepas. Tropical Storm Warnings were in effect for the portions of the coast from Punta Allen to Tulum, Mexico and from Dzilam to Progresso. Tropical Storm Watches were issued for the portions of the coast from Intracoastal City to Morgan City, Louisiana and from the Mississippi/Alabama border to Okaloosa/Walton County Line, Florida.

Former Tropical Storm Zeta intensified quickly into a hurricane on Monday. More thunderstorms formed near the center of circulation and the circulation became more symmetrical. Storms that formed near the center of Hurricane Zeta generated upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the hurricane. The removal of mass allowed the surface pressure to decrease, which contributed to the increase in wind speed. Winds to hurricane force extended out 25 miles (40 km) from the center in the northeast quadrant of Zeta. The winds in the other quadrants were blowing at less than hurricane force. Winds to tropical storm force extended out 120 miles (195 km) in the eastern half of Hurricane Zeta. Winds to tropical storm force extended out 80 miles (130 km) in the western half of Zeta.

Hurricane Zeta will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next few hours and it could strengthen more. Zeta will move across the Yucatan Peninsula on Monday night. It will likely weaken while the center passes over land. Hurricane Zeta will move over the southern Gulf of Mexico on Tuesday. Zeta will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C when it reaches the Gulf.  It will be under the western part of an upper level ridge where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Hurricane Zeta is likely to intensify on Tuesday. An upper level trough over the southwestern U.S. will produce southwesterly winds which will blow toward the top of Hurricane Zeta. Those winds will cause more vertical wind shear and Zeta could weaken when it moves over the northern Gulf of Mexico.

Hurricane Zeta will move around the western end of a ridge of high pressure. The ridge will steer Zeta toward the northwest on Monday and Tuesday. On its anticipated track Hurricane Zeta will pass over the northeastern tip of Yucatan Peninsula on Monday night. Zeta will bring gusty winds and locally heavy rain to the northeastern Yucatan. It will also cause a storm surge of 4 to 7 feet (1 to 2 meters) along the coast where the wind blows the water toward the shore. Hurricane Zeta will move more toward the north on Wednesday when it moves around the western end of the ridge. Zeta could approach the coast of southeast Louisiana on Wednesday afternoon. Zeta is likely to still be a hurricane when it approaches the Gulf Coast

Tropical Storm Zeta Strengthens over Northwest Caribbean

Tropical Storm Zeta strengthened over the northwestern Caribbean Sea on Sunday. At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Zeta was located at latitude 18.1°N and longitude 83.8°W which put it about 260 miles (425 km) southeast of Cozumel, Mexico. Zeta was moving toward the north-northwest at 2 m.p.h. (3 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 60 m.p.h. (95 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 997 mb.

The government of Mexico issued a Hurricane Warning for the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula from Tulum to Rio Lagartos and for Cozumel. The Hurricane Warning included Cancun. A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the Cuban province of Pinar del Rio.

The circulation around Tropical Storm Zeta strengthened during Sunday, but the distribution of thunderstorms was still asymmetrical. The stronger thunderstorms were mostly occurring in bands in the southern half of Zeta. Bands in the northern half of the circulation consisted primarily of showers and lower clouds. Despite the asymmetrical structure, thunderstorms near that center of circulation generated upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the tropical storm. The removal of mass allowed the surface pressure to decrease, which caused the wind speed to increase. Winds to tropical storm force extended out about 100 miles (160 km) from the center on the eastern side of Tropical Storm Zeta. The winds on the western side of Zeta were blowing at less than tropical storm force.

Tropical Storm Zeta will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next 24 hours.  Zeta will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will be under an upper level ridge where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  Tropical Storm Zeta will intensify during the next 24 hours and it could strengthen to a hurricane. Zeta could weaken if the center passes over the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula.

A ridge of high pressure will strengthen to the northeast of Tropical Storm Zeta on Monday. The ridge will steer Zeta toward the northwest on Monday and Tuesday. On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Zeta could pass near the northeastern tip of Yucatan Peninsula on Monday night. Zeta could be a hurricane when it reaches the Yucatan. Zeta will move more toward the north on Wednesday when it moves around the western end of the ridge. Zeta could reach the central coast of the Gulf of Mexico on Wednesday afternoon.

Elsewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, Tropical Storm Epsilon made a transition to a powerful extratropical cyclone east of Newfoundland. At 11:00 p.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Epsilon was located at latitude 48.6°N and longitude 38.8°W which put it about 675 miles (1090 km) east-northeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Epsilon was moving toward the northeast at 46 m.p.h. (74 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 70 m.p.h. (110 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 85 m.p.h. (135 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 968 mb.

TD 28 Strengthens to Tropical Storm Zeta

Tropical Depression Twentyeight strengthened to Tropical Storm Zeta over the northwestern Caribbean Sea early on Sunday. At 8:00 a.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Tropical Storm Zeta was located at latitude 17.8°N and longitude 83.8°W which put it about 275 miles (445 km) southeast of Cozumel, Mexico. Zeta was nearly stationary. The maximum sustained wind speed was 40 m.p.h. (65 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 1005 mb.

The government of Mexico issued a Hurricane Watch for the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula from Tulum to Rio Lagartos and for Cozumel. The Hurricane Watch included Cancun. A Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the Cuban province of Pinar del Rio.

Based on data from a NOAA airplane and a scatterometer on a satellite, the National Hurricane Center determined that Tropical Depression Twentyeight had strengthened to Tropical Storm Zeta over the northwestern Caribbean Sea early on Sunday morning. The circulation around Zeta was still not well organized. The circulation in the middle troposphere was located to the east of the surface center. The lower level circulation seemed to be shifting closer to the middle level circulation and it was possible that a new center could be developing under the middle level rotation. Bands of showers and thunderstorms were revolving around the middle level center. Storms near that center were generating upper level divergence which pumped mass away from the tropical storm. Data from the airplane indicated that winds to tropical storm force were occurring southeast of the center of Zeta. The tropical storm force winds extended out about 80 miles (130 km) from the center of Zeta.

Tropical Storm Zeta will move through an environment favorable for intensification during the next several days.  Zeta will move over water where the Sea Surface Temperature is near 29°C.  It will be under an upper level ridge where the upper level winds are weak and there will be little vertical wind shear.  If Zeta remains stationary for another 12 to 24 hours, its winds will mix cooler water to the surface, which could interrupt intensification. Tropical Storm Zeta will intensify during the next 24 hours and it could strengthen to a hurricane early next week.

Tropical Storm Zeta will be in an area where the steering winds are weak during the next 12 to 24 hours. Zeta could meander over the northwestern Caribbean Sea during that time. A ridge of high pressure will strengthen to the northeast of Tropical Storm Zeta later on Sunday. The ridge will steer Zeta toward the northwest on Monday and Tuesday. On its anticipated track Tropical Storm Zeta could pass near the northeastern tip of Yucatan Peninsula on Monday evening.

Elsewhere over the Atlantic Ocean, Hurricane Epsilon was passing south of Newfoundland. At 5:00 a.m. EDT on Sunday the center of Hurricane Epsilon was located at latitude 42.8°N and longitude 53.7°W which put it about 270 miles (435 km) south of Cape Race, Newfoundland. Epsilon was moving toward the northeast at 30 m.p.h. (48 km/h). The maximum sustained wind speed was 75 m.p.h. (120 km/h) and there were wind gusts to 90 m.p.h. (145 km/h). The minimum surface pressure was 960 mb.